Electrical Knowhowhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/online electrical courses software books spreadsheets electrical design sound system design voltage, power transformer current voltage drop generator circuit breaker fuse cable wire power factor cad drawing nec nfpa short circuit over voltage switch receptacle light fixture lighting, grounding bonding earthing lightning raceway switchgear panel busbar automatic transfer switch demand factor capacitor resistance battery ampere horsepower watt switchboard single line diagram bill of quantitiesennoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 01 Jun 2020 13:26:15 PDTBlogger http://www.blogger.com53311000noreply@blogger.comnoonline electrical courses software books spreadsheets electrical design sound system design voltage, power transformer current voltage drop generator circuit breaker fuse cable wire power factor cad drawing nec nfpa short circuit over voltage switch recepElectricalKnowhowhttps://feedburner.google.comElectrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/KW-Power-Calculation-for-electrical-water-heaters.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 20 Apr 2020 03:17:47 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3034031863177544945
This is the fourth Article for helping designers to choose the
appropriate type and calculate the required power rating for the chosen type of
Electrical Water Heater.
In the first
Article " Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations – PartOne", we gave you a brief about the following points:
Hot Water System Components,
Different types of Water Heaters used in domestic and 1Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/calculation-of-size-of-electrical-water-heaters.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 20 Apr 2020 03:17:05 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2115959198895876233
This is the third Article for helping designers to choose the
appropriate type and calculate the required power rating for the chosen type of
Electrical Water Heater.
In the first
Article " Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations – Part One", we gave you a brief about the following points:
Hot Water System Components,
Different types of Water Heaters used in domestic and 0Load Bank Selection and Sizing Coursehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/load-bank-selection-and-sizing-course.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 15 Apr 2020 21:37:32 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1694448983352643890
Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to
perform Transformer Sizing Calculations for all types and special cases of
transformers.
The targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know
Load bank2Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/how-to-select-and-size-Load-Banks.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 15 Apr 2020 21:45:49 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1098197416176957910
Today, we will
explain the Steps for Selection/Calculation of the Proper Load Bank and Standard Load
Bank Testing Procedure.
The (14)
Steps for Selection/Calculation of the Proper Load Bank
There are several factors involved in the
selection and sizing of the proper load bank used for testing a power source.
Inadequately sized load bank may shorten0Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/load-bank-power-control-wiring-diagrams.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 15 Apr 2020 21:46:23 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1333708381042333512
Today, we will
explain the Load Bank Power Connections and an example for Installation details, Power and
Control Wiring Diagrams for A Load Bank.
Load
Bank power Connections
1- Is a Local Isolator required for
disconnecting the load bank?
When planning the installation of the load bank consider if a local isolator
switch is required for 0Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/Load-Bank-Basic-components-and-circuits.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 15 Apr 2020 21:46:57 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-9175079153982068409
Today, we will
explain the Load Bank components and its basic circuits.
Load
Bank Components
Basically any low voltage load bank
will be consists of the following basic components:
Enclosure,
Load elements,
Controls
& Instrumentation,
Cooling
system,
System
Protections,
Load and
supply Connectors.
1-Enclosure
Load 0Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/types-of-load-banks.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 15 Apr 2020 21:47:27 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-599148688390136407
In Article “Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part Two”, We indicated the different types of load banks, which are:
According To the
Load Element Type,
According To
Portability,
According To
Cooling Method,
According To
Method of Control,
According To
Operating Mode,
According To
Application,
According to no. of Load Steps,
According to Load Bank Voltage and
Frequency.
And we explained
the0Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/Resistive-Reactive-inductive-capacitive-combined-load-banks.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 15 Apr 2020 21:48:22 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7386739649498289403
In Article “Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part One”, we explain the following points:
What
is a Load Bank?,
Why
we don’t use the actual facility loads to test the power source?,
Wet Stacking Problem,
Load Bank Applications,
Applicable
standards for Using load banks with emergency power generating systems.
Today, we will explain the different types of Load Banks.
Types 0Load Bank Sizing Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2020/04/Introduction-to-load-bank-sizing-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 15 Apr 2020 21:48:55 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6896094310143612206
Today, we will start explaining what the
Load Bank is and How to Size it correctly.
Introduction to Load Banks
What is a Load Bank?
Any device which generates electricity can be called as a power
source and it may require testing from time to another for the purposes of
product development, production line testing, product demonstration,
2HVAC Equipment Power sizing Calculations Coursehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/11/hvac-equipment-power-sizing-Course.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sun, 24 Nov 2019 03:33:41 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4988573439476498819
<!--[endif]-->
Course
Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to
perform HVAC Equipment Power sizing Calculations
The
targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills
Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know
Parts consuming power in HVAC0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Eighthttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/11/Sizing-Calculations-For-Air-Conditioning-And-Refrigeration-Equipment.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-512802687822943557Today, we will list all the summary tables for sizing calculations for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment as Per NEC Article 440.
Summary Tables
For Sizing Calculations For Air Conditioning And Refrigeration Equipment As Per
NEC Article 440
Sizing Calculations For Air Conditioning And Refrigeration Equipment
First:
Sizing 0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Sevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/11/sizing-overload-protection-for-air-conditioning.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5157391688303772541Today, we will explain how to size the Branch Circuit Overload Protection for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment and Provisions for Room Air Conditioners as Per Article 440.
The National
Electrical Code (NEC) And HVAC Systems – Part Five
Fifth:
Branch Circuit Overload Protection
In Article "HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations 0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/11/branch-circuit-conductors-sizing-for-air-conditioning.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4225596803888893701
Today, we will explain how to size the branch circuit conductors, controllers and overload protection for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment as Per Article 440.
The National
Electrical Code (NEC) And HVAC Systems – Part Four
Third:
Sizing Branch Circuit Conductors
When making the sizing calculation for branch circuit 0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/11/sizing-protective-devices-for-air-conditioning.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2449303627368125091
In the previous article "The National Electrical Code (NEC) and HVAC Systems – Part Two", We
indicated that Sizing Calculations for Air Conditioning
and Refrigeration Equipment as Per Article 440 will include
Sizing calculations for:
Disconnecting
Means,
Branch-Circuit
Short-Circuit and Ground-Fault Protection Devices,
Branch
Circuit Conductors,
Branch
Circuit Overload Protection,
Motor
0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/10/Sizing-Disconnecting-Means-for-Air-Conditioning.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5138799806566569465
In the previous article "The NationalElectrical Code (NEC) and HVAC Systems – Part One", we differentiate between the service, feeder
and branch circuit load calculations and we explain the contribution of HVAC
system in the service and feeder calculations. Today we will explain the branch
circuit load calculations for HVAC system loads.
The National
Electrical Code (NEC) And HVAC0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/10/NEC-Code-and-HVAC-Systems-1.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2400357798273059182
Today, we will
explain the NEC Rules related to HVAC System Power Sizing
Calculations.
The National
Electrical Code (NEC) And HVAC Systems – Part One
First, we need to differentiate between the following load calculations:
Service load calculation,
Feeder load calculation,
Branch circuit load calculation.
And to know the difference between the 0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/10/Motors-used-in-HVAC-Industry.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4679012646696041080
In Article "HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part One", we explain the following points:
Summary of heating and cooling systems,
Parts Consuming Power in HVAC Systems,
Types of motors used in HVAC Systems,
Types of pumps used in
HVAC/refrigeration,
Parts consuming power as per used
unit/system,
Motor Nameplate for Air Conditioner
Motor Applications.
Today, we will
explain 0HVAC Equipment Power Rating Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/10/hvac-equipment-power-rating.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6509940955517254309
In this course, we will learn the following:
How to select and size the over current protection device for HVAC
equipment.
How to size the circuit wiring/cables for HVAC equipment.
How to select and size the disconnection means for HVAC
equipment.
How to select and size the motor controller for HVAC equipment.
For the above items to be fully understood, you must review our
0Elevators Traffic Design and Motor power sizing Calculations Coursehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/10/elevators-traffic-design-and-motor-sizing.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Fri, 15 May 2020 10:05:39 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6042951644489139400
Course
Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to
perform Elevators Traffic Design and Motor power sizing Calculations.
The
targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills
Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know Parts
of Elevator System 0Glossary of Lift Traffic Design Calculations – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/10/glossary-of-lift-traffic-design-Tow.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2778479841471167997
This glossary will help you to understand the technical
meaning for any term or expression which will facilitate your understanding for
the Lift Traffic design calculations.
Please read this glossary carefully because you will need to
come back to it while reviewing the articles of this course: Elevators Traffic Design and Motor
power sizing Calculations.
<!--[if !0Glossary of Lift Traffic Design Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/10/glossary-of-lift-traffic-design-one.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3801771518519864724
This glossary will help you to understand the technical
meaning for any term or expression which will facilitate your understanding for
the Lift Traffic design calculations.
Please read this glossary carefully because you will need to
come back to it while reviewing the articles of this course: Elevators Traffic Design and Motor
power sizing Calculations.
Glossary of Lift 0“FGI Facility Guidelines Institute” Special Guidelines for healthcare buildings http://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/09/fgi-facility-guidelines-institute.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Unknown)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4648740354869276801
In this topic, we will provide an overview about electrical points in special Guidelines for healthcare buildings “FGI Facility Guidelines Institute” include:
1- Overview about FGI Facility Guidelines
Institute
- The most important points mentioned
in the Guidelines for
2- Hospital
* Small Inpatient
Primary Care Hospitals
* Psychiatric Hospitals
* Rehabilitation
0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Elevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/06/How-To-Size-The-Elevator-Motor-KW.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-839590687902403754
Today we
will explain the following:
How to
size the lift motor KW/HP,
How to
calculate the Lift Energy Consumption.
First: How To Size The Lift Motor KW/HP
There are many methods
for sizing the lift motor KW/HP like:
Professional Formulas Method,
Baldor Formulas Method,
Equivalent Weight Method,
Buildings Energy Code (BEC)’S Tables Method,
Baldor 0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Tenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/06/Iterative-Balance-Method-for-lift-systems-design.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5484325281695313453
In article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Nine”, we indicated that we had two
Methods for Lift Traffic Design Calculations under the method of The Formula-Based Method,
which are:
First
Method: The Conventional Design Method,
Second
Method: The Iterative Balance Method.
We explained the First Method: The Conventional Design Method in the above
mentioned0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Ninehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/06/Conventional-Design-Method-for-lift-systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3314958310326957544
Today we will explain
step by step the two methods for Lift Traffic design calculations with solved
examples.
Methods for Lift Traffic Design
Calculations
In article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Two”, we indicated that There are (4) methods used for the traffic
design and analysis as follows:
First: Calculation
methods, 0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Eighthttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/06/Calculation-of-the-quality-of-service-for-lifts.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2007568540716610053
In article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Six”, we started
explaining how to perform the following lift
traffic design calculations:
1-
Calculation of the Number of Round Trips for a Single Car,
2-
Estimation of Population,
3-
Calculation of the Average Number of Passengers per Trip (P),
4-
Calculation of the Uppeak Handling Capacity (UPPHC),
5-
Calculation0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Sevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/05/Round-Trip-Time-calculation-for-lifts.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6838757772288721791
In article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Six”, we started
explaining how to perform the following lift
traffic design calculations:
1-
Calculation of the Number of Round Trips for a Single Car,
2-
Estimation of Population,
3-
Calculation of the Average Number of Passengers per Trip (P),
4-
Calculation of the Uppeak Handling Capacity (UPPHC),
5-
0Electrical Bill Of Quantity (BOQ) - Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/05/electrical-bill-of-quantity-boq.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Unknown)Fri, 24 May 2019 23:28:04 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6319001380366028894
In our first Article about Bill of Quantity (BOQ) on the following link " BILL OF QUANTITIES ", we explained the following points:
The
Purpose of a Bill of Quantities,
BOQ Creation Procedures,
BOQ Types,
Difference between BOQ & BOM (Bill Of Materials).
Today, we will explain how to write the BOQ for Electrical items.
Bill of Quantity (BOQ) Definition:
It is a document used 1Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/05/Lift-Traffic-Design-Calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2085222276326442893
Today we will start explaining the lift traffic design
calculations. In article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Two”, we listed the (4) methods of Traffic Design
Calculations, which were:
First: Calculation methods,
which includes:
1- The Formula-Based Method (Classical
Method Method),
2- The Monte Carlo Simulation Method.
Second: Simulation methods,
which 0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/04/Lifts-and-Conveyors-Handling-capcity-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5209150763371325419
In Article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Two”, we
indicated that the Principles of Interior Building Circulation are:
Efficiency of Interior Circulation,
Human Factors,
Circulation and Handling Capacity Factors,
Location and Arrangement of Transportation Facilities.
Also, we explained the first principle; Efficiency of Interior Circulation
in above 0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/03/Escalator-handling-capacity-calculation.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7826493909396988653
In Article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Two”, we indicated
that the Principles of Interior Building Circulation are:
Efficiency of Interior Circulation,
Human Factors,
Circulation and Handling Capacity Factors,
Location and Arrangement of Transportation Facilities.
We explained the first principle in above article and
explained the human factors in 0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/03/Human-effects-on-elevator-design.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3914401222075703648
In Article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Two”, we indicated
that the Principles of Interior Building Circulation are:
Efficiency of Interior Circulation,
Human Factors,
Circulation and Handling Capacity Factors,
Location and Arrangement of Transportation Facilities.
We explained
the first principle in above article. Today we will continue explaining other
0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/03/Methods-of-Elevators-Traffic-Design-Calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7254024592782015119
In the previous article “Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part One”, we explained the following points:
Applicable Standards and Codes Used In This Course,
The Need for Lifts,
The Efficient Elevator Design Solution
Parts of Elevator System Design Process
Overview of Elevator Design and Supply Chain Process.
Today we will explain the following points:
The0Vertical Transportation Design and Traffic Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/03/Elevator-System-Design-Steps.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-394085846790596978
The first course “Course ELEV-1:An Introduction to Transportation Systems in Buildings” was covering the following
points:
Understanding the technology, concepts and terminology in
Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways systems.
Recognizing different types, components and accessories of
Elevators, Escalators and Moving Walkways systems.
Specifying correctly any type of Elevators, 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Eighteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/02/how-to-size-cables-for-capacitor-bank.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4544891149040680369
Today we will explain the following points:
How to size the power and control cables used
in PFC panels,
Effects of
Power Factor Correction Capacitors on Generators,
Should capacitors be included in fault
studies?
How
to size Cables for PFC Panels?
Cables are used inside PFC panels for:
Power circuit and
Control circuit.
0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Seventeenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/02/sizing-of-capacitor-discharge-resistor-and-controller.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5950901785519663915
In article” Power Factor CorrectionCapacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Fifteen” we indicated that The
Main Components of PFC Panel are as follows:
1- The Main Components of
PFC Panel
A Panel for
power factor correction (PFC Panel) is constituted essentially from the
following main components:
A
protective device;
A switching
device (0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Sixteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/sizing-of-PF-capacitors-and-detuned-reactors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-60857213450786996
In article” Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Fifteen”
we indicated that The
Main Components of PFC Panel are as follows:
1- The Main Components of
PFC Panel
A Panel for
power factor correction (PFC Panel) is constituted essentially from the
following main components:
A
protective device;
A switching
device (0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Fifteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/selection-of-breaker-fuse-contactor-for-power-factor-capacitors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3802941781062220874
Today, we will explain
The Main Components of PFC Panel and how to select each
one of them.
1- The Main Components of
PFC Panel
A Panel for
power factor correction (PFC Panel) is constituted essentially from the
following main components:
A
protective device;
A switching
device (contactor);
One or more
capacitors suitably connected;
0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Fourteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/power-factor-correction-capacitors-calculators.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5460386139661407450
Today, we will explain
the most (4) famous power factor
correction capacitor calculators.
Power Factor Correction Capacitors Calculators
The most (4) famous power factor correction
capacitor calculators are as follows:
Arteche Reactive Power and Harmonic Resonance Point Calculator,
Eaton Power Factor Correction Calculator,
AccuSine Sizing Spreadsheet,
0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Thirteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/power-factor-correction-in-case-of-Harmonics.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5788691033040855216
Today, we will explain
the power factor compensation in case of harmonics distortion.
Linear and Non-Linear Loads
Electrical loads can be categorized to Linear and non-linear loads
as follows:
1- Linear loads
Linear loads occur when the impedance is constant; which implies
the current is proportional to the voltage. a straight-line graph as 0Power Factor Correction Calculations Coursehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/power-factor-correction-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 06 Feb 2019 20:48:44 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7729517863083693120
Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to
perform PF Correction Sizing Calculations.
The targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know types of power factor, its
benefits and bad impacts 0Generator Sizing Calculations Coursehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/generator-sizing-calculations-course.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 12 Jan 2019 03:04:55 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-338574167413642886
Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to
perform Generator Sizing Calculations.
The targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know selection factors for generators,
Know how to specify 0Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations Coursehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/electrical-water-heaters-power-calculations-course.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 20 Apr 2020 03:11:46 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-917233018251596227
Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to perform Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations. The targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know Hot Water System 0Transformer Sizing Calculations Coursehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/transformer-sizing-calculations-course.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Thu, 10 Jan 2019 04:16:35 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5294374119395193960
Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to
perform Transformer Sizing Calculations for all types and special cases of
transformers.
The targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know 0Electrical Shop Drawings Course – Level Ihttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/shop-drawings-course-level-i.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Thu, 10 Jan 2019 04:22:19 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1513088195124024352
Course
Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to
understand the technical part of how to do shop drawings.
The targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students.
Skills Development:
On completion of this course the target person will be able to:
Know
Electrical Symbols, 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Twelvehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/power-factor-correction-for-buildings.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1231840356686319645
As we explained before in article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Eleven”, how
to calculate the capacitor KVAR rating for compensation at:
Transformers,
Individual motors.
Today, we will explain
how to calculate the capacitor KVAR rating for buildings and power plants
(group compensation).
Calculation Of The Capacitor KVAR
Rating 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Elevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2019/01/power-factor-correction-for-Transformers-and-motors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2827609971176307666
Today, we will start explaining Different
Methods of Calculations for PF correction capacitor Ratings.
As we explained before in article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Four”, that
the Types of Power Factor Correction Capacitors according to
Location can be categorized to:
Central Compensation,
Individual Compensation,
Group Compensation,
0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Tenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/12/power-factor-correction-capacitors-Design-for-new-buildings.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7979748670115317734
Today, we will start explaining Power Factor Correction Capacitors
Sizing Calculations Steps in detail for the new designs as in the previous
article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Five”, we only listed the
Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations Steps.
4- Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations
Steps
1Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Ninehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/12/power-factor-correction-design-for-existing-installation.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3452255261295442628
Today, we will continue
explaining Power
Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations Steps in detail
as in the previous article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Five”, we only listed the Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations
Steps.
So, today
we will continue explaining other steps for Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing
Calculations0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Eighthttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/12/design-phase-for-power-factor-correction-capacitors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8136500711513684180
Today, we will continue
explaining Power
Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations Steps in detail
as in the previous article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Five”, we only listed the Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations
Steps.
So, today
we will continue explaining other steps for Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing
Calculations0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Sevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/12/Need-for-power-factor-correction-excel-worksheet.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3622148258712855687
Today, we will continue
explaining Power
Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations Steps in detail
as in the previous article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Five”, we only listed the Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations
Steps.
So, today
we will continue explaining other steps for Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing
Calculations 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/11/calculate-power-factor-for-existing-installations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3197273410815673651
Today, we will continue explaining Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations Steps in detail as in the previous article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Five”, we only listed the Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations Steps. So, today we will start explaining the following steps for Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/11/Power-Factor-Correction-Capacitors-Sizing-Calculations-Steps.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6757668607866209686
Today, we will continue
explaining other Types of Power Factor Correction Capacitors as in the previous
article “Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Four”, we showed that the Types
of Power Factor Correction Capacitors according to Location can be categorized
to:
Individual compensation,
Group compensation,
Central compensation,
Hybrid compensation.
We 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/11/types-of-power-factor-correction-capacitors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6979796612993239959
Today, we will continue
explaining the technical part for Power
Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations. We will explain the following
topics:
How to make Power Factor Correction?
Types of Power Factor Correction
Capacitors
1- How to make
Power Factor Correction?
Power factor correction can be made in two ways:
Reduce the amount 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/10/Benefits-of-power-factor-correction.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7309983485466883479
Today, we will continue
explaining the technical part for Power
Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations. We will explain the following
topics:
What
causes low power factor?
Bad
impacts of low power factor,
Benefits
of Power Factor correction.
1- What causes
Low Power Factor?
There are many causes for getting a low power factor for 0Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/10/power-factor-correction-capacitors-sizing.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5569915912979634418
Today, we will start explaining
the technical part for Power Factor
Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations. We will explain the following topics:
Applicable Standards for Power Factor
Correction,
Types of Loads,
The Power Triangle,
What is a power factor?
Types of power factor
Why utilities charge a power factor
penalty?
Billing Structure.
1- Applicable
Standards for 0Electrical Design for Fire Fighting Pumpshttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/10/electrical-design-for-fire-fighting-pumps.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Unknown)Thu, 11 Oct 2018 04:01:14 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5500446753278735354
1- Fire Fighting System Equipment
The Fire Fighting System consists of many equipment as follows:
Jockey pump,
Electrical fire fighting pump,
Diesel fire fighting pump,
Electrical and control panels.
Video#1:Fire Fighting Pump Connection Details & Its Working Principles ( English).
1- Jockey pump
A jockey pump is a small pump connected to a fire 2Power Factor Correction Capacitors Sizing Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/10/Power-Factor-Correction-Capacitors-Glossary.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-276311599598143932
Today, we will continue explaining the glossary of all terms and expressions that we will deal with through our explanation of Power Factor Correction Capacitors (PFCC) Sizing Calculations. This glossary will help you to understand the technical meaning for any term or expression which will facilitate your understanding for the Power Factor Correction Capacitors (PFCC) Sizing 0Electrical Rooms Dimensionhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/09/electrical-rooms-dimension.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Unknown)Sat, 01 Sep 2018 04:26:19 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2013226220829529503
In the initial design steps, Electrical rooms estimated dimensions are requested. Here, we will know how to estimate the dimensions of the following electrical rooms:
Electrical Panel Board Room,
Transformer Room,
Generator Room .
1- Electrical Panel Board Room
After the stage of estimating electrical loads and determining the initial number of 0How to Read and Interpret Single Line Diagram – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/02/how-to-read-and-interpret-single-line.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4459123717512235766
Today, we will explain the following:
Voltage Regulators Data,
Transformers Data,
Switchgear data.
Interpreting Single-Line
Diagram – Part Two
The interpretation of single-line diagrams
is explained in this section under the following major subject headings:
Informational Elements
Details Variations
Relationships between 0How to Read and Interpret Electrical Shop Drawings –Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/02/How-to-read-single-line-diagrams.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5136833050223390493
Today, we will explain the following:
Basic Elements of Electrical Drawings,
Types of Electrical Drawings,
Single-Line /One-Line Diagram - Part one.
8- Basic
Elements of Electrical Drawings
An electrical drawing is a type of
technical drawing that shows information about power, lighting, and
communication for an engineering or 2How to Read and Interpret Electrical Shop Drawings –Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/02/Comparison-Of-Electrical-Circuit-Symbols-IEEE-IEC.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7838608853296635613
Today, we will explain the Drafting Practices
Using Graphical Symbols and abbreviations.
4- Electrical
Symbols
Electrical symbol
An
Electrical symbol definition:
Electrical
symbol is a small picture or image called a pictogram
used to represent various electrical and electronic devices (such as wires,
batteries, resistors, and 0How to Read and Interpret Electrical Shop Drawings –Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/01/ANSI-IEEE-IEC-BS-standard-for-electrical-symbols.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6833315477412943935
In
article “How to Read and Interpret Electrical Shop Drawings –Part One”, we gave a fast overview
for the articles/courses that give a preliminary explanation for the different Types of Electrical drawings.
Also we listed the
Electrical Drawings Glossary
which will be a reference for all the terms and expressions used throughout
this course.
Today, we will explain the Resources used to
Read0How to Read and Interpret Electrical Shop Drawings –Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/01/read-and-interpret-electrical-shop-drawing.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4301916983103208408
1-
Introduction
This
is the second course for Electrical drawings after our first course “ED-1: Electrical Drawings Course”, Where we
explain the following points:
Reading an electrical drawing,
Basic layout of a drawing,
Types and sizes of drawings,
Numbering system for drawings,
Positioning parts on drawings,
How to create a 0Course: HVAC-2: Electrical Wiring Diagrams and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systemshttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2018/01/Electrical-Wiring-Diagrams-and-Calculations-for-Air-Conditioning-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 08 Jan 2018 04:56:13 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2407370714942143111
Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the
target persons with the ability to understand Wiring Diagrams for All Types of
HVAC systems and making the design calculations for disconnecting means,
cables, OCPD & sizing of motor-compressor controllers.
The target Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate
engineers, under graduate engineering students, site field engineers,
0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Fourteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/generators-sizing-calculations-part.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7079723250803404005
Today, we will explain Rules Of Thumb for Generators Sizing Calculations for
Existing and New Installations.
Fifth: Rules Of
Thumb For Generators Sizing Calculations
First:
Rules Of Thumb For Existing
Installations
In article “Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part Twelve”, We explain how to
calculate the peak load of 0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Thirteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/selecting-the-correct-generator-size.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8562925490425981341
Today, we will continue
explaining in detail the applicable procedures for Generators Sizing
Calculations for Existing and New Installations.
Fourth: Applicable Procedures For Generators Sizing
Calculations
In the previous Article “Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part Ten”, we list the required steps for generator set sizing
calculation0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Twelvehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/generator-loads-sizing-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4366274011741068952
Today,
we will continue explaining in detail the applicable procedures for Generators
Sizing Calculations for Existing and New Installations.
Fourth: Applicable Procedures For Generators Sizing
Calculations
In the previous Article “Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part Ten”, we list the required steps for generator set sizing
calculation and we indicate 0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Elevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/generators-sizing-calculations-steps.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2433780989325207930
Today, we will explain
in detail the applicable procedures for Generators Sizing Calculations for
Existing and New Installations.
Fourth: Applicable Procedures For Generators Sizing
Calculations
In the previous Article “Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part Ten”, we list the required steps for generator set sizing
calculation and we indicate that the 0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Tenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/Introduction-to-Generators-Sizing-Calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-198781733153339492
Subject of Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators – Part One
Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators – Part Two
Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part Two
First: Reasons
for having on-site generators
Second: Applicable performance standards for generator sets
Third: Selection Factors Used0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Ninehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/generators-sizing-per-method-of-loads-control.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5524294311359766803
Subject of Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators – Part One
Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators – Part Two
Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part Two
First: Reasons
for having on-site generators
Second: Applicable performance standards for generator sets
Third: Selection 0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Eighthttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/generators-sizing-calculations-per-load-type.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2488933479654342669
Subject of Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators
– Part One
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators
– Part Two
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Two
First: Reasons for
having on-site generators
Second: Applicable
performance standards for generator sets
Third: Selection
0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Sevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/loads-type-impact-on-generators-sizing-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6135811135332403768
Subject of
Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators –
Part One
Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators – Part
Two
Generators
Sizing Calculations – Part Two
First: Reasons for having
on-site generators
Second: Applicable performance standards for 1Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/generators-voltage-frequency-dip-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6935192954570479484
Subject of Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators – Part One
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators – Part Two
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Two
First: Reasons for having on-site generators
Second: Applicable performance standards for generator sets
Third:0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/12/generators-sizing-calculations-considerations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-396340948720860003
Subject of Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators – Part One
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators – Part Two
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Two
First: Reasons for having on-site generators
Second: Applicable performance standards for 0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/generators-sizing-calculations-selection-factors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1133793514902990306
Subject of Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators – Part One
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators – Part Two
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Two
First: Reasons for having on-site generators
Second: Applicable performance standards for generator sets
0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/Selection-factors-for-Generators-Sizing-Calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7811871780765865719
Subject of Previous Article
Article
Glossary of Generators – Part One
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part One
Glossary of Generators – Part Two
Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Two
Today, we will start explaining the Generator Sizing Calculations.
Generator
Sizing Calculations
Note:2Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/Glossary-generators-sizing-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2008182399775264353
Today, we will continue the explanation of Glossary of
Generators to start explaining Generators Sizing Calculations later. In
the previous article “Generators Sizing Calculations – Part One” I indicate the First Part of Glossary
of Generators and now we will indicate the second part.
This glossary will help you to understand the technical
meaning for any term or expression which will 0Generators Sizing Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/generators-sizing-calculations-Glossary.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8234054935654525907
Today, we will start the explanation of Generator Sizing
Calculations and as usual we start by the glossary of all terms and expressions
that we will deal with through our explanation of Generator Sizing Calculations.
This glossary will help you to understand the technical
meaning for any term or expression which will facilitate your understanding for
the Generator Sizing Calculations.
Please0Power And Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Ninehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/Sizing-Transformers-with-Large-Motor-Loads.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3621649531364200402
Subject Of Previous
Articles
Article
Glossary of
Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One
Resources
used to calculate basic ratings of power and distribution transformers
Power and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Two
the selection
factors for the 0Power And Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Eighthttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/Transformer-Sizing-Spreadsheet-Calculator.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7049689560503040353
Subject Of Previous
Articles
Article
Glossary of
Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One
Resources
used to calculate basic ratings of power and distribution transformers
Power and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Two
the selection
factors for the0Power And Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Sevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/k-Factor-Transformers-Sizing-Calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-41254236808880199
Subject Of Previous
Articles
Article
Glossary of
Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One
Resources
used to calculate basic ratings of power and distribution transformers
Power and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Two
the selection
factors for0Power And Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/Paralleled-Transformers-sizing-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5970415109592838096
Subject Of Previous
Articles
Article
Glossary of
Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One
Resources used
to calculate basic ratings of power and distribution transformers
Power and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Two
the selection
factors for0Power And Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/transformers-sizing-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5032672683598125185
In Article “Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One”, we indicate that the contents of
our articles for Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations will
include the following points:
Glossary of Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and distribution transformer components,
Power and distribution transformer classification: 0Power And Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/power-and-distribution-transformers-sizing-steps.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4756546482582185749
In Article “Power and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part One”, we indicate that the contents of
our articles for Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations will
include the following points:
Glossary of Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and distribution transformer components,
Power and distribution transformer classification: 0Power and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/sizing-power-and-distribution-transformers.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3194643682628792090
In Article “Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One”, we indicate that the contents of
our articles for Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations will
include the following points:
Glossary of Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and distribution transformer components,
Power and distribution transformer classification: 0Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/power-and-distribution-transformers-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5391792433226409491
In Article “Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations – part One”, we indicate
that the
contents of our articles for Power and Distribution Transformers sizing
calculations will include the following points:
Glossary of Sizing Power and Distribution Transformers,
Power and distribution transformer components,
Power and distribution transformer classification: 1Building Services Handbookhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/building-services-handbook.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 06 Nov 2017 10:46:41 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2925374346605909055
Building Services Handbook
Building Services Handbook
This book is very important to the
electrical engineers to be familiar with all the building services that he can
deal with them inside any building. Most of these systems are mechanical system
which will need power for operation. The expert engineer must be aware of the
components of these systems and its general theory of 0Power and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/power-and-distribution-transformers-sizing-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5195897595995871346
Power
and Distribution Transformers Sizing Calculations – part one
Today, we will start explaining
the Power and Distribution Transformers sizing calculations in details and I’d
like to from all of you to review our course “EP-3: Electrical Procurement – Transformers Course” to be more familiar with the
contents of our new articles about the Power and Distribution Transformers
sizing 0Electrical estimator's manualhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/electrical-estimators-manual.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 06 Nov 2017 10:47:43 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3668562270583430177
Electrical
estimator's manual
Electrical estimator's manual
Why You must have this Book:
It teaches you, How to estimate electrical construction projects, including everyday labor installation rates.
The contents of this book have been designed in such a way that electrical instructors, electricians, electrical engineers, architects, blueprint readers, etc. can draw some benefit0ABB’s Electrical installation handbookshttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2017/11/abb-electrical-installation-handbooks.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 06 Nov 2017 10:49:00 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4867208299825671152
ABB’s Electrical installation handbooks
Note: Please, Click on the book Name for
Downloading or for Opening a Sub-List in new Page
ABB’s Electrical installation handbooks
1-
Electrical installation handbook- Volume 1: Protectionand control devices
2- Electrical
installation handbook- Volume 2: Electricaldevices
Scope
and objectives
The 0Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2015/07/Design-Methodology-of-Electrical-Water-Heaters.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 20 Apr 2020 03:16:10 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4019985897487515957This is the second Article for helping designers to choose the appropriate type and calculate the required power rating for the chosen type of Electrical Water Heater.In the first Article " Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations – Part One", we gave you a brief about the following points:
Hot Water System Components,
Different types of Water Heaters used in domestic and commercial6Electrical Water Heaters Power Rating Calculations – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2015/07/electrical-water-heaters-power-rating-calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 20 Apr 2020 03:14:54 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8571995820602343292Most Domestic and commercial buildings need a service hot water system. Depending upon the type of building, this system could range from as small as an under sink water heater for washing hands to a 10,000 gallon hot water storage tank system used in a hospital laundry.This Article is intended to help designers to choose the appropriate type and calculate the required power rating for thee 2Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/06/Sizing-of-Disconnecting-means-for-Motors-and-HVAC-Motor-Compressors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1151636350305150217
I explained some of the Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems in the following Articles:
Topic
Article
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems Types,
Introduction for
Types of Motors/Compressors used in Air-Conditioning Systems.
Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part One
Types of Disconnecting 7Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/06/Locating-Disconnecting-means-for-Motors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2730520618878665403
In Article " Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part One ", which was the first Article in our new Course HVAC-2: Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems, I explained the following points:
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems Types
Introduction for Types of Motors/Compressors used in Air-Conditioning Systems
And in Article " 0Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/06/Identification-and-Marking-of-Disconnecting-Means.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-979861145908720326
In Article " Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part One ", which was the first Article in our new Course HVAC-2: Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems, I explained the following points:
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems Types
Introduction for Types of Motors/Compressors used in Air-Conditioning Systems
And in Article " 0Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/06/Types-of-Disconnecting-Means-for-Air-Conditioning-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1745894921757054801In Article " Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part One ", which was the first Article in our new Course HVAC-2: Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems, I explained the following points:
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems Types
Introduction for Types of Motors/Compressors used in Air-Conditioning Systems
And in Article " 0Electrical Wiring Diagrams for Air Conditioning Systems – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/Field-Electrical-Wiring-for-Chillers-and-AHU.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6050223141461206128
In Article " Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part One ", which was the first Article in our new Course HVAC-2: Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems, I explained the following points:
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems Types,
Introduction for Types of Motors/Compressors used in Air-Conditioning Systems.
And in Article " 1Electrical Wiring Diagrams for Air Conditioning Systems – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/electrical-wiring-diagrams-for-air-conditioning.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3193511347676273481
In Article " Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part One ", which was the first Article in our new Course HVAC-2: Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems, I explained the following points:
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems Types,
Introduction for Types of Motors/Compressors used in Air-Conditioning Systems.
And in Article " 3Electrical Wiring Diagrams for Air Conditioning Systems – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/How-to-read-Electrical-Wiring-Diagrams.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6526601585547399269In Article " Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part One ", which was the first Article in our new Course HVAC-2: Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems, I explained the following points:
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems Types,
Introduction for Types of Motors/Compressors used in Air-Conditioning Systems,
Today, I will explain 3Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/electrical-rules-and-calculations-for-Air-Conditioning-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5246515793722875180This is the first Article in our new Course HVAC-2: Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems, which will list, explain, and discuss with examples all the topics covering the Electrical Rules and Calculations for Air-Conditioning Systems which will include but not limited to the following points:
Introduction for Air-Conditioning Systems types,
Introduction for Types of 8Course Lightning-2: Lightning Protection System Design and Calculationshttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/Lightning-Protection-System-Design-and-Calculations-Course.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Tue, 13 May 2014 22:57:27 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3782786667871056636Course Description: This course is intended to prepare the targeted persons with the following:
Knowing the steps of Lightning Protection System Design Process,
Knowing the definitions of Main Terms in Lightning Protection System Design Process,
Knowing IEC 62305-2 method of Risk Assessment Study,
Knowing NFPA 780 method of Risk Assessment Study,
Knowing Software Method For Performing The Risk 5Course Lightning-1: Introduction to Lightning Protection System Designhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/introduction-to-Lightning-Protection-System-Design-course.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Mon, 12 May 2014 22:44:00 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1301580169162273581
Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the targeted persons with the following:
Knowing Lightning and Surge protection terminology, Abbreviations, Signs and Symbols,
Knowing what is lightning and types of Lightning Flashes,
Knowing what is the Lightning Protection Systems LPS, types and components,
Knowing The Correct Choice Of Lightning Protection system Components,
Knowing 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Twentyhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/Calculation-Of-The-Number-Of-Down-Conductors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8438952364452782237
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in below Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two "
1Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Nineteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/Recommendations-for-the-Best-Positioning-of-Air-Terminals.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5270019064667903049
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in below Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two "
0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Eighteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/Protection-Angle-and-Mesh-Lightning-Design-Methods.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-9123831156562474857
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in below Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two "
0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part seventeenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/Rolling-Sphere-Method-for-Lightning-Protection-Design.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2088994301345694010
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in below Fig.
The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two "
1Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Sixteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/05/Sizing-and-Positioning-of-Lightning-Air-Terminals.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6173712982708813097
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two "
0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Fifteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/04/Selection-Of-External-LPS-Type-and-Material.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8968492039756203865
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in above Article
Step#2: Risk Assessment Study
Also, In above 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Fourteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/04/Online-Calculators-Need-for-Lightning-Protection.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5222742281073334927In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in above Article
Step#2: Risk Assessment Study
Also, In above Article, 1Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Thirteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/04/IEC62305-NFPA780-Need-for-Lightning-Protection-Excel-Sheets.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7056063691364396917
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in above Article
Step#2: Risk Assessment Study
Also, In above 3Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Twelvehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/Riesgo-Software-For-Performing-The-Risk-Assessment-Study.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4426121154730269010
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in above Article
Step#2: Risk Assessment Study
Also, In above 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Elevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/RAPAL-Software-for-Risk-Assessment-Study.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6201718915476752253
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in above Article
Step#2: Risk Assessment Study
Also, In above 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Tenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/StrikeRisk-Software-for-Lightning-Risk-Assessment-Study.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6770939241001869376
In Article " Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Two ", I indicated the lightning protection design process involves a number of design steps as in Fig.1.
Fig.1: The Lightning Protection Design Process
Step#1: Characteristics of the Structure to Be Protected
Explained in above Article
Step#2: Risk Assessment Study
Also, In 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Ninehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/NFPA-780-Steps-of-Risk-Assessment-Study.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8894404738414922318
In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Eighthttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/NFPA-780-Detailed-Risk-Assessment-Study.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-750483185213492086
In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Sevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/Calculations-of-Risk-Assessment-Study-as-per-NFPA-780.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3809434580021790939
In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/Calculations-for-Amount-of-Lightning-Consequent-Loss.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3403531883220519768
In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/Calculations-of-probability-of-damage-to-structure.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5848808455619394885
In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/03/Calculations-Of-Number-Of-Dangerous-Lightning-Events.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3657178476142891268
In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For
Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is
commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an
integrated design 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Identification-of-the-Lightning-Protection-Risk-Components.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4823996067503631715
In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated the (3) phases of the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Design Process For
Lightning Protection Systems
The design process of lightning protection systems is
commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an
integrated 0Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Methods-Of-Calculations-For-Risk-Assessment-Study.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7451925418489153771In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated that the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. These phases can be listed as follows:
Planning phase,
Consultation phase,
Detailed Design phase.
Also, in Article " Design Calculations 1Design Calculations of Lightning Protection Systems – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Introduction-to-Design-Calculations-of-Lightning-Protection-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4203316848287766328In Article " Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems ", I indicated that the Design Process for Lightning Protection Systems is commonly broken into discrete phases, allowing the lightning protection designer to present an integrated design package. These phases can be listed as follows:
Planning phase,
Consultation phase,
Detailed Design phase.
Today, I will explain Design 0Design Process For Lightning Protection Systemshttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Design-Process-For-Lightning-Protection-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8381220277286183175
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems.
And, I explained the Conventional Lightning Protection System parts and components in the following Articles:
Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part One
Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Two
Conventional Lightning Protection 0Non-Conventional Lightning Protection System – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Arguments-against-Claimed-Advantages-for-Dissipation-Array-System.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:31 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3449121695148118009
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which 0Non-Conventional Lightning Protection System – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Typical-Designs-of-Dissipation-Array-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5845447103848701399
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which 0Non-Conventional Lightning Protection System – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Design-Considerations-for-Dissipation-Array-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1769664583604988475
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which 0Non-Conventional Lightning Protection System – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Types-of-Dissipation-Array-Lightning-System.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-6377265240779159281
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which 0Non-Conventional Lightning Protection System – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Charge-Transfer-Lightning-Protection-System.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-1176055868480387739
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which 0Non-Conventional Lightning Protection System – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/The-Early-Streamer-Emission-Air-Terminals.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5464744759496586784
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which 0Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Sevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/02/Separation-Distance-Calculation-for-Lightning-Protection-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2316601784936562309
In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which 0Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Sixhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Internal-Lightning-Protection-System.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3078788979774788771In Article " Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPS ", I list the main types of Lightning Protection Systems as follows:
Types of Lightning Protection Systems LPS
Lightning protection systems for buildings and installations may be divided into three principal types as follows:
1- LPS for Protection for buildings and installations against direct strike by lightning, which includes:
0Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Fivehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Earthing-Termination-Systems-for-Lightning-Systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3621169731994324639In Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part One ", I listed all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field.Also, in Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part Two ", I answered the following questions:
What is Lightning?
What are the types of Lightning flashes?
What is the shape of The Lightning Waveform?
How Lightning strikes can affect the electrical 0Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Fourhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Lightning-Natural-Down-Conductors.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-5948011825322409018
In Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part One ", I listed all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field.Also, in Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part Two ", I answered the following questions:
What is Lightning?
What are the types of Lightning flashes?
What is the shape of The Lightning Waveform?
How Lightning strikes can affect the 0Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Threehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Correct-Choice-Of-Lightning-Protection-Components.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4392406701248739739
In Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part One ", I listed all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field.Also, in Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part Two ", I answered the following questions:
What is Lightning?
What are the types of Lightning flashes?
What is the shape of The Lightning Waveform?
How Lightning strikes can affect the 0Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Lightning-Protection-System-Components.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-8095687701714599941In Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part One ", I listed all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field.Also, in Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part Two ", I answered the following questions:
What is Lightning?
What are the types of Lightning flashes?
What is the shape of The Lightning Waveform?
How Lightning strikes can affect the 0Conventional Lightning Protection System Components – Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Conventional-Lightning-Protection-System-Components.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2764982423150893296In Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part One ", I listed all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field.Also, in Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part Two ", I answered the following questions:
What is Lightning?
What are the types of Lightning flashes?
What is the shape of The Lightning Waveform?
How Lightning strikes can affect the electrical0Types Of Lightning Protection Systems LPShttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/types-of-lightning-protection-systems.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7191781806897066446In Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part One ", I listed all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field and which will be used throughout Course EE-5: Lightning Protection Systems Design Calculations.Also, in Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part Two ", I answered the following questions:
What is Lightning?
What are the types of Lightning 0Introduction to Lightning Protection System Design- Part Twohttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Introduction-to-Lightning-Protection-System-Design.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4644327194082579256In Article " Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part One ", I listed all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field and which will be used throughout Course EE-5: Lightning Design Calculations.Today, I will continue explaining the introduction to Lightning Protection System Design.
What is Lightning?
Lightning is the visible discharge of static electricity0Introduction to Lightning System Design- Part Onehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/introduction-to-lightning-system-design.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7728770961084136907
This is the first Article in this course; Lightning Design Calculations, and of course we must begin with knowing all terms, abbreviations and Symbols used in lightning field and which will be used throughout this course.First: Lightning and Surge protection terminology
A
Air
Termination
Shall
mean that part of a lightning protection system designed to capture the
0Course EE-5: Grounding System Design Calculationshttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/course-ee-5-grounding-system-design.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Wed, 08 Jan 2014 22:09:35 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-70815759844287854631- Course Description:
This course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to perform all electrical grounding system design for Domestic, Commercial and Industrial Facilities and AC Substations. 2- The targeted Persons:
Design engineers, new graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students, site field engineers, maintenance engineers and technicians.
3- Skills4Grounding Design Calculations – Part Seventeenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Excel-Spreadsheet-For-Grounding-System-Design-Calculations-Of-AC-Substation.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Fri, 17 Apr 2020 23:21:05 PDTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2147039818214070517
In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial premises,
High and medium voltage 1Grounding Design Calculations – Part Sixteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Final-Design-for-AC-Substations-Grounding-System.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-641665077971985172
In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial premises,
High and medium voltage 0Grounding Design Calculations – Part Fifteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2014/01/Calculation-of-Maximum-Ground-Potential-Rise-Mesh-and-Step-Voltage.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-96733185501059417
In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial premises,
High and medium voltage 0Grounding Design Calculations – Part Fourteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2013/12/Calculation-Of-Maximum-Grid-Fault-Current.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-423872647026409296
In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design
Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design
Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building
as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial
premises,
High and medium 0Grounding Design Calculations – Part Thirteenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2013/12/Substation-Grid-Resistance-Calculations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-4254570925976279470In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design
Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design
Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building
as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial
premises,
High and medium voltage 0Grounding Design Calculations – Part Twelvehttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2013/12/Design-Steps-of-Preliminary-Grounding-System-For-AC-Substations.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-2145273648361302639In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design
Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design
Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building
as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial
premises,
High and medium voltage 0Grounding Design Calculations – Part Elevenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2013/12/Calculation-of-the-Maximum-allowable-Touch-and-Step-Voltages.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:48 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-7331285896427429715In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design
Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design
Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building
as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial
premises,
High and medium voltage0Grounding Design Calculations – Part Tenhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2013/12/Earthing-Grid-Conductor-Sizing-for-AC-Substation.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Sat, 29 Feb 2020 23:35:47 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-19468918080920053In Article " Grounding Design Calculations – Part One ", I indicated the following:
Grounding System Design
Calculations according to type of the building
The procedures for performing the Grounding System Design
Calculations can differ slightly according to the type of the building
as follows:
Domestic, commercial and industrial
premises,
High and medium voltage 1EE-4: Basic Electrical design course – Level IIIhttp://www.electrical-knowhow.com/2013/12/Basic-Electrical-design-course-Level-III.htmlnoreply@blogger.com (Electrical-Knowhow)Thu, 19 Dec 2013 03:26:43 PSTtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-6291466886522656194.post-3321961620405971283Course Description:This third level design course is intended to prepare the target persons with the ability to perform the following electrical design calculations:
Over current Protection Calculations,
Conductor Ampacity Calculation,
Voltage Drop Calculations.
The targeted Persons: Design engineers, New graduate engineers, under graduate engineering students. Skills Development: On 0nonadult