An analytical approach using the three-dimensional displacement of a soil is investigated to provide analytical solutions of the horizontal response of a circular pile subjected to lateral loads in nonhomogeneous soil. The rocking stiffness coefficient of the pile shaft in homogeneous soil is derived from the analytical solution taking into account the three-dimensional displacement represented in terms of scalar potentials in the elastic three-dimensional analysis. The lateral stiffness coefficient of the pile shaft in nonhomogeneous soil is derived from the rocking stiffness coefficient taking into account the rocking rotation of a rigid pile shaft. The relationship between horizontal displacement, rotation, moment, and shear force of a pile subjected to horizontal loads in nonhomogeneous soil is obtainable in the form of the recurrence equation. The formulation of the lateral displacement and rotation of the pile base subjected to lateral loads in nonhomogeneous soils is presented by taking into account Mindlin's equation and the equivalent thickness for soil layers in the equivalent elastic method. There is little difference between lateral, rocking, and couple stiffness coefficients each obtained from both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods except for the case of Poisson's ratio near 0.5. The comparison of results calculated by the current method for a pile subjected to lateral loads in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous soils has shown good agreement with those obtained from analytical and numerical methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

To accurately predict soil volume changes under thermal cycles is of great importance for analysing the performance of many earth structures such as the energy pile and energy storage system. Most of the existing thermo-mechanical models focus on soil behaviour under monotonic thermal loading only, and they are not able to capture soil volume changes under thermal cycles. In this study, a constitutive model is proposed to simulate volume changes of saturated soil subjected to cyclic heating and cooling. Two surfaces are defined and used: a bounding surface and a memory surface. The bounding surface and memory surface are mainly controlled by the preconsolidation pressure (a function of plastic volumetric strain) and the maximum stress experienced by the soil, respectively. Under thermal cycles, the distance of the two surfaces and plastic modulus increase with an accumulation of plastic strain. By adopting the double surface concept, a new elastoplastic model is derived from an existing single bounding surface thermo-mechanical model. Comparisons between model predictions and experimental results reveal that the proposed model is able to capture soil volume changes under thermal cycles well. The plastic strain accumulates under thermal cycles, but at a decreasing rate, until stabilization. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Soil erosion around defective underground pipes can cause ground collapses and sinkholes in urban areas. Most of these soil erosion events are caused by fluidization of the surrounding soil with subsequent washing into defective sewer pipes. In this study, this soil erosion process is simplified as the gradual washout of sand particles mixed with water through an orifice. The discrete element method is used to simulate the large deformation behavior of the sand particles, and the Darcy fluid model is coupled with this approach to simulate fluid flow through porous sand media. A coupled 3D discrete element model is developed and implemented based on this scheme. To simulate previous experiments using this coupled model considering the current computing capacity, we incorporated a ‘supply layer’ to study the continuous erosion process. The coupled model can predict the erosion flow rates of sand and water and the shape of erosion void. Thus, the model can be used as an effective and efficient tool to investigate the soil erosion process around defective pipes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper deals with a model for time-dependent compaction of soil-like porous materials. Although the model is originally developed for degradation-induced settlements in municipal solid waste landfills, it may be applied to any settlements caused by solid mass loss as well. The presented model is part of a coupled THMC model, that is, a model that considers coupled thermal, hydraulical, mechanical and chemical effects. The Theory of Porous Media is used as continuum mechanical framework. For kinematic description, large strain continuum mechanics are applied. The paper provides a brief insight into the coupled model, but concentrates on the description of the compaction model and its application within coupled analyses of a laboratory experiment and a landfill structure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Heterogeneities, such as fractures and cracks, are ubiquitous in porous rocks. Mesoscopic heterogeneities, that is, heterogeneities on length scales much larger than typical pore size but much smaller than the wavelength, are increasingly believed to be responsible for significant wave energy loss in the seismic frequency band. When a compressional wave stresses a material containing mesoscopic heterogeneities, the more compliant parts of the material (e.g., fractures and cracks) respond with a greater fluid pressure than the stiffer portions (e.g., matrix pores). The induced fluid flow, resulting from the pressure gradients developed on such scale, is called mesoscopic flow. In the present study, the double-porosity dual-permeability model is adopted to incorporate mesoscopic heterogeneities into rock models to account for the attenuation of wave energy. Based on the model, the damping effect due to mesoscopic flow in a one-dimensional porous structure is investigated. Analytical solutions for several boundary-value problems are obtained in the frequency domain. The dynamic responses of infinite and finite porous layer are examined. Numerical calculations show that the damping effect of mesoscopic flow is significant on the pore pressure response and the resulting effective stress. For the displacement, the effect is seen only at the very low frequency range or near the resonance frequencies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The paper explores application of the engineered increase in soil permeability, achieved using reaction of guanidinium solutions with smectite soils, to geotechnical problems. The comparison between the finite element analysis of the enhanced permeability model for axisymmetric conditions and a simplified analytical solution demonstrates the importance of accounting for diffusive and dispersive fluxes. In order to illustrate possible practical application of the proposed soil improvement technique, two geotechnical examples have been numerically explored: improving performance of a ground water well and the stabilization of a slope by chemically enhanced drainage. For the well application, it has been demonstrated that for a relatively small degree of treatment, the power consumption can be reduced to a half, compared with the non-treated soil. For the slope stability application, the water table downstream of the drain can be significantly lowered using moderate pump/collector pressures at the centre of the drain, causing a higher increase in the factor of safety for a larger area subjected to the chemically enhanced drainage. The particularly promising result is that in both applications the largest gain in the well/drain efficiency has been observed for smaller chemically enhanced areas, where a short duration of treatment and small amounts of chemicals decrease the power consumption and increase the safety factor at the highest rate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A hybrid discrete-continuum numerical scheme is developed to study the behavior of a hydraulic fracture crossing natural fractures. The fully coupled hybrid scheme utilizes a discrete element model for an inner domain, within which the hydraulic fracture propagates and interacts with natural fractures. The inner domain is embedded in an outer continuum domain that is implemented to extend the length of the hydraulic fracture and to better approximate the boundary effects. The fracture is identified to propagate initially in the viscosity-dominated regime, and the numerical scheme is calibrated by using the theoretical plane strain hydraulic fracture solution. The simulation results for orthogonal crossing indicate three fundamental crossing scenarios, which occur for various stress ratios and friction coefficients of the natural fracture: (i) no crossing, that is, the hydraulic fracture is arrested by the natural fracture and makes a T-shape intersection; (ii) offset crossing, that is, the hydraulic fracture crosses the natural fracture with an offset; and (iii) direct crossing, that is, the hydraulic fracture directly crosses the natural fracture without diversion. Each crossing scenario is associated with a distinct net pressure history. Additionally, the effects of strength contrast and stiffness contrast of rock materials and intersection angle between the hydraulic fracture and the natural fracture are also investigated. The simulations also illustrate that the level of fracturing complexity increases as the number and extent of the natural fractures increase. As a result, we can conclude that complex hydraulic fracture propagation patterns occur because of complicated crossing behavior during the stimulation of naturally fractured reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Shale, like many other sedimentary rocks, is typically heterogeneous and anisotropic and is characterized by partial alignment of anisotropic clay minerals and naturally formed bedding planes. In this study, a micromechanical framework based on the lattice discrete particle model is formulated to capture these features. Material anisotropy is introduced through an approximated geometric description of shale internal structure, which includes representation of material property variation with orientation and explicit modeling of parallel lamination. The model is calibrated by carrying out numerical simulations to match various experimental data, including the ones relevant to elastic properties, Brazilian tensile strength, and unconfined compressive strength. Furthermore, parametric study is performed to investigate the relationship between the mesoscale parameters and the macroscopic properties. It is shown that the dependence of the elastic stiffness, strength, and failure mode on loading orientation can be captured successfully. Finally, a homogenization approach based on the asymptotic expansion of field variables is applied to upscale the proposed micromechanical model, and the properties of the homogenized model are analyzed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The transient response of a cylindrical casing–cement structure in a poroelastic stratum under dynamic radial tractions is one of the significant issues during the analysis of downhole operations and the selection of safe material. Based on the Biot theory and general elastic mechanics, this paper gives a set of exact solutions for radial displacement, stresses for the casing–cement system and the pore pressure of the infinite surrounding poroelastic stratum in the Laplace transform space. Solutions are presented for three different types of transient radial loadings acting on the surface of casing, i.e., suddenly applied constant load, gradually applied step load and triangular pulse load. Time domain solutions are obtained using a reliable numerical method of inverse Laplace transforms. A detailed parametric study about the transient response is presented both at the casing–cement interface and the cement–stratum interface, and the distributions of the pore pressure and the effective stresses in the stratum are also examined. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A new computing method is proposed for reliable analysis. The limit state function is implicit and nonlinear in reliability analysis of slopes and is difficult to apply by traditional reliability methods, especially in large-scale project applications. Relevance vector machines (RVMs) are capable of approximating the limit state function without the need for additional assumptions regarding the function form, as opposed to traditional polynomial response surfaces. RVMs were adapted to obtain the limit state function. We propose an RVM-based response surface method combined with the first-order reliability method for slope reliability analysis and describe its step-by-step implementation. The reliability index obtained from the proposed method shows excellent agreement with traditional response surface method results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Along with the applicability of optimization algorithms, there are lots of features that can affect the functioning of the optimization techniques. The main purpose of this paper is investigating the significance of boundary constraint handling (BCH) schemes on the performance of optimization algorithms. To this end, numbers of deterministic and probabilistic BCH approaches are applied to one of the most recent proposed optimization techniques, named interior search algorithm (ISA). Apart from the implementing different BCH methods, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to find an appropriate setting for the only parameter of ISA. Concrete cantilever retaining wall design as one of the most important geotechnical problems is tackled to declare proficiency of the ISA algorithm, on the one hand, and benchmark the effect of BCH schemes on the final results, on the contrary. As results demonstrate, various BCH approaches have a perceptible impact on the algorithm performance. In like manner, the essential parameter of ISA can also play a pivotal role in this algorithm's efficiency. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The effects of fractures on wave propagation problems are increasingly abstracting the attention of scholars and engineers in rock engineering field. This study aims to fully validate the ability of discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) to model normal P-wave propagation across rock fractures. The effects of a single fracture and multiple parallel fractures are all tested. The results indicate that DDA can accurately reflect the fracture effects, including the fractures stiffness, the fracture spacing and the fracture number, and the effects of incident wave frequency on one-dimensional P-wave propagation problems. Thus, DDA is able to deal well with normal incident P-wave propagation problems. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

According to field feedbacks from high-speed lines (HSL), the increase of train operating speeds is responsible for unusual fast evolving geometrical disorders in ballasted tracks. This paper deals with the search of solutions applicable at the design stage to mitigate these disorders. The starting point of the present work relies on the assumption, comforted by the literature, of a strong correlation between disorders and vertical accelerations in the ballast layer induced by the train passages. This led us focus herein on the calculation and the analysis of accelerations in the railway structure. The vertical accelerations (*γ*_{z}) are computed using the in-house developed numerical program ViscoRail and on the basis of a reference HSL. These are shown to increase strongly with the train speed attesting to the link between the train speed and the geometrical disorders in ballast. Then, other simulations are run varying some structural parameters to evaluate their impact on the acceleration field *γ*_{z}. In that way, we show that decreasing the stiffness of the mechanical connection between the rails and the ballast, increasing the moment of inertia of the rails or the Young modulus of the sub-ballast layer, leads to a decrease of *γ*_{z} and could provide solutions for the design of future HSL. The solution consisting in the incorporation of an asphalt sub-ballast layer, as already experimented on sites, is finally examined in more details. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Assuming that the pile variable cross section interacts with the surrounding soil in the same way as the pile toe does with the bearing stratus, the interaction of pile variable cross section with the surrounding soil is represented by a Voigt model, which consists of a spring and a damper connected in parallel, and the spring constant and damper coefficient are derived. Thus, a more rigid pile–soil interaction model is proposed. The surrounding soil layers are modeled as axisymmetric continuum in which its vertical displacements are taken into account and the pile is assumed to be a Rayleigh–Love rod with material damping. Allowing for soil properties and pile defects, the pile–soil system is divided into several layers. By means of Laplace transform, the governing equations of soil layers are solved in frequency domain, and a new relationship linking the impedance functions at the variable-section interface between the adjacent pile segments is derived using a Heaviside step function, which is called amended impedance function transfer method. On this basis, the impedance function at pile top is derived by amended impedance function transfer method proposed in this paper. Then, the velocity response at pile top can be obtained by means of inverse Fourier transform and convolution theorem. The effects of pile–soil system parameters are studied, and some conclusions are proposed. Then, an engineering example is given to confirm the rationality of the solution proposed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This investigation is concerned with the mathematical analysis of a viscoelastic prestressed pipe pile embedded in multilayered soil under vertical dynamic excitation. The pile surrounding soil is governed by the plane strain model, and the soil plug is assumed to be an additional mass connected to the pipe pile shaft by applying the distributed Voigt model. Meanwhile, the prestressed pipe pile is assumed to be a vertical, viscoelastic, and hollow cylinder governed by the one-dimensional wave equation. Then, analytical solutions of the dynamic response of the pipe pile in the frequency domain are derived by means of the Laplace transform and impedance function transfer method. Subsequently, the corresponding quasi-analytical solution in the time domain for the case of the prestressed pipe pile undergoing a vertical semi-sinusoidal exciting force applied at the pile top is obtained by employing the inverse Fourier transform. Utilizing these solutions, selected results for the velocity admittance curve and the reflected wave curve are presented for different heights of the soil plug to examine the influence of weld properties on the vertical dynamic response of prestressed pipe pile. The reasonableness of the theoretical model is verified by comparing the calculated results based on the presented solutions with measured results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The dynamic response of a mechanically stabilized earth wall to the passing of a high-speed train is modelled using the finite element method. A three-dimensional analysis is carried out, using a specific framework that allows performing the analysis with a moderate computational effort. In the first place, a so-called multiphase approach is used to take into account the reinforcing strips. The moving load is taken into account by performing the calculation in a mobile referential using the properties of symmetry of the train cars and a simplifying assumption of periodicity for the whole train. We also assume a steady state. A partial validation of the approach is obtained by means of a comparison with an analytical solution. The quick increase in displacements induced by the train passing when the speed comes close to the celerity of Rayleigh waves clearly appears in the results. The vertical displacements, vertical stresses in the backfill, tensile forces in the strips and the influence of the stiffness of the soil are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Several researchers have reported that the mean effective stress of unsaturated soils having a relatively high degree of saturation gradually decreases under fully undrained cyclic loading conditions, and such soils can be finally liquefied like saturated soils. This paper describes a series of simulations of fully undrained cyclic loading on unsaturated soils, conducted using an elastoplastic model for unsaturated soils. This model is a critical state soil model formulated using effective stress tensor for unsaturated soils, which incorporates the following concepts: (a) the volumetric movement of the state boundary surface containing the critical state line owing to the variation in the degree of saturation; (b) the soil water characteristic curve considering the effects of specific volume and hydraulic hysteresis; and (c) the subloading surface concept for considering the effect of density. Void air is assumed to be an ideal gas obeying Boyle's law. The proposed model is validated through comparisons with past results. The simulation results show that the proposed model properly describes the fully undrained cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils, such as liquefaction, compression, and an increase in the degree of saturation. Finally, the effects of the degree of saturation, void ratio, and confining pressure on the cyclic strength of unsaturated soils are described by the simulation results. The liquefaction resistance of unsaturated soils increases as the degree of saturation and the void ratio decrease, and as the confining pressure increases. Furthermore, the degree of saturation has a greater effect on the liquefaction resistance than the confining pressure and void ratio. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, the dynamic response of an infinite beam resting on a Pasternak foundation and subjected to arbitrary dynamic loads is developed in the form of analytical solution. The beam responses investigated are deflection, velocity, acceleration, bending moment, and shear force. The mechanical resistance of the Pasternak foundation is modeled using two parameters, that is, one accounts for soil resistance due to compressive strains in the soil and the other accounts for the resistance due to shear strains. Because the Winkler model only represents the compressive resistance of soil, comparatively, the Pasternak model is more realistic to consider shear interactions between the soil springs. The governing equation of the beam is simplified into an algebraic equation by employing integration transforms, so that the analytical solution for the dynamic response of the beam can be obtained conveniently in the frequency domain. Both inverse Laplace and inverse Fourier transforms combined with convolution theorem are applied to convert the solution into the time domain. The solutions for several special cases, such as harmonic line loads, moving line loads, and travelling loads are also discussed and numerical examples are conducted to investigate the influence of the shear modulus of foundation on the beam responses. The proposed solutions can be an effective tool for practitioners. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An exact steady-state closed-form solution is presented for coupled flow and deformation of an axisymmetric isotropic homogeneous fluid-saturated poroelastic layer with a finite radius due to a point sink. The hydromechanical behavior of the poroelastic layer is governed by Biot's consolidation theory. Boundary conditions on the lateral surface are specifically chosen to match the appropriate finite Hankel transforms and simplify the transforms of the governing equations. Ordinary differential equations in the transformed domain are solved, and then the analytical solutions in the physical space for the pore pressure and the displacements are finally obtained by using finite Hankel inversions. The analytical solutions at some special locations such as the top and bottom surfaces, lateral surface, and the symmetrical axis are given and analyzed. And a case study for the consolidation of a water-saturated soft clay layer due to pumping is conducted. The analytical solution is verified against the finite element solution. Meanwhile, an analysis of coupled hydromechanical behavior is carried out herein. The presented analytical solution is an exact solution to the practical poroelastic problem within an axisymmetric finite layer. It can provide us a better understanding of the poroelastic behavior of the finite layer due to fluid extraction. Besides, it can be applied to calibrate numerical schemes of axisymmetric poroelasticity within finite domains. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The concurrent multiscale method, which couples the discrete element method (DEM) for predicting the local micro-scale evolution of the soil particle skeleton with the finite element method (FEM) for estimating the remaining macro-scale continuum deformation, is a versatile tool for modeling the failure process of soil masses. This paper presents the separate edge coupling method, which is degenerated from the generalized bridging domain method and is good at eliminating spurious reflections that are induced by coupling models of different scales, to capture the granular behavior in the domain of interest and to coarsen the mesh to save computational cost in the remaining domain. Cundall non-viscous damping was used as numerical damping to dissipate the kinetic energy for simulating static failure problems. The proposed coupled DEM–FEM scheme was adopted to model the wave propagation in a 1D steel bar, a soil slope because of the effect of a shallow foundation and a plane-strain cone penetration test (CPT). The numerical results show that the separate edge coupling method is effective when it is adopted for a problem with Cundall non-viscous damping; it qualitatively reproduces the failure process of the soil masses and is consistent with the full micro-scale discrete element model. Stress discontinuity is found in the coupling domain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An analytical solution is obtained for 2-D steady Darcian flow under and through a cutoff wall partially obstructing a homogeneous isotropic foundation of a dam. The wall is leaky; that is, flow across it depends on the ratio of hydraulic conductivity of the wall and the wall thickness that results in the third-type (Robin) boundary condition along the wall, as compared with the Terzaghi problem for an impermeable wall. The Laplace equation for the hydraulic head is meshlessly solved in a non-standard flow tube. A Fredholm equation of the second kind is obtained for the intensity of leakage across the wall. The equation is tackled numerically, by adjusted successive iterations. Flow characteristics (total Darcian discharge and its components through the wall and the window between the wall top and horizontal bedrock, stream function, head distribution, and Darcian velocity along the wall and tailwater bed) are obtained for various conductivity ratios, head drops across the structure, thicknesses of the foundation, and the degree of its blockage by the wall. Comparisons with the Terzaghi limit of an impermeable wall show that for common wall materials and thicknesses, the leakage may constitute tens of percent of the discharge under the dam. The through-flow hydraulic gradients on a vertical wall face (Robin's boundary condition) as well as the exit gradients along a horizontal tailwater boundary (Dirichlet's boundary condition) acting for decades have deleterious impacts on dam stability because of potential heaving, piping, and mechanical–chemical suffusion. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Numerical analysis of transient seepage in unbounded domains with unsteady boundary conditions requires a more sophisticated artificial boundary approach to deal with the infinite character of the domain. To that end, a local artificial boundary is established by simplifying a global artificial boundary. The global artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) at the truncated boundary are derived from analytical solutions for one-dimensional axisymmetric diffusion problems. By applying Laplace transforms and introducing some specially defined auxiliary variables, the global ABCs are simplified to local ABCs to significantly enhance the computational efficiency. The proposed local ABCs are implemented in a finite element computer program so that the solutions to various seepage problems can be calculated. The proposed approach is first verified by the computation of a one-dimensional radial flow problem and then tentatively applied to more general two-dimensional cylindrical problems and planar problems. The solutions obtained using the local ABCs are compared with those obtained using a large element mesh and using a previously proposed local boundary. This comparison demonstrates the satisfactory performance and obvious superiority of the newly established boundary to the other local boundary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The paper presents a synthesis of analytical modeling and computational simulations of the intrinsic permeability of microcracks, embedded in porous materials taking into account the interaction of the fluid flow in the microcrack with the surrounding porous material. In the first part of the paper, using the DARCY, STOKES, BRINKMAN, and the BEAVERS–JOSEPH approximations, we derive the intrinsic permeability of a plain non-rough microcrack in terms of the microcrack geometry and the permeability of the porous material surrounding the microcrack. In the second part of the paper, the intrinsic permeability of a microcrack is determined by means of computational simulations using the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method with partial bounceback conditions. The comparison of predictions from the analytical model and the numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Stratification is a basic characteristic of ground. Due to the influence of ground water, saturated weak interlayers widely exist, particularly in soft soil area. An interlayer of high compressibility and low strength has a substantial effect on dynamic response of the ground, especially under high speed moving load. Thus, a comprehensive investigation in the influence of interlayer is essential and useful in geotechnical and transportation-related engineering. This paper presents a three-dimensional semi-analytical approach to study the dynamic response of a layered ground with a soft saturated interlayer. The ground is modelled as a half-space consisting of three parts: a viscoelastic upper layer, a saturated poroviscoelastic interlayer governed by Biot's theory and a viscoelastic half-space. An ‘adapted stiffness matrix’ is proposed to obtain the semi-analytical solution to the system. Comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the influences of existence, geometrical and physical properties of the interlayer. Depth, thickness, hydraulic permeability of the interlayer, load speed and frequency significantly influence the dynamic response of the ground, among which the interlayer depth plays a dominant role. Resonant frequency exists, which is highly affected by the interlayer thickness, especially in low speed regime. Both hydraulic permeability and boundary conditions of the interlayer influence the characteristics of pore pressure distribution. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A fuzzy algorithm, the Takagi–Sugeno model, is implemented to develop a fuzzy inference system for predicting the holding capacity of suction caisson foundations for offshore platforms. The premise parameters of the fuzzy model are optimized by using a subtractive clustering algorithm. The consequent parameters are optimally determined via a weighted least square estimation. The input variables used for training the fuzzy model include the aspect ratio of the caisson, the undrained shear strength of the clay, and the angle that the chain force forms with the horizontal. The output of the proposed fuzzy model is the capacity of the suction caisson anchor. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the fuzzy modeling framework, the results of extensive finite element analyses are investigated. Comparisons of the trained fuzzy model with the data demonstrate that the proposed modeling framework is an effective method to estimate the holding capacity of offshore suction caisson systems. Moreover, the performance of the fuzzy model is robust against higher levels of input data uncertainties. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We discuss a methodology for computing the optimal spatio-temporal characteristics of surface wave sources necessary for delivering wave energy to a targeted subsurface formation. The wave stimulation is applied to the target formation to enhance the mobility of particles trapped in its pore space. We formulate the associated wave propagation problem for three-dimensional, heterogeneous, semi-infinite, elastic media. We use hybrid perfectly matched layers at the truncation boundaries of the computational domain to mimic the semi-infiniteness of the physical domain of interest. To recover the source parameters, we define an inverse source problem using the mathematical framework of constrained optimization and resolve it by employing a reduced-space approach. We report the results of our numerical experiments attesting to the methodology's ability to specify the spatio-temporal description of sources that maximize wave energy delivery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A Boundary Element based Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (BE-DDA) method is developed by implementing the improved dual reciprocity boundary element method into the open close iterations based DDA. This newly developed BE-DDA is capable of simulating both the deformation and movement of blocks in a blocky system. Based on geometry updating, it adopts an incremental dynamic formulation taking into consideration initial stresses and dealing with external concentrated and contact forces conveniently. The boundaries of each block in the discrete blocky system are discretized with boundary elements while the domain of each block is divided into internal cells only for the integration of the domain integral of the initial stress term. The contact forces among blocks are treated as concentrated forces and the open–close iterations are applied to ensure the computational accuracy of block interactions. In the current method, an implicit time integration scheme is adopted for numerical stability. Three examples are used to show the effectiveness of the algorithm in simulating block movement, sliding, deformation and interaction of blocks. At last, block toppling and tunnel stability examples are conducted to demonstrate that the BE-DDA is applicable for simulation of blocky systems. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper generalizes the finite strain Coulomb solution of Vrakas and Anagnostou (*Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech* 2014; 38(11): 1131–1148) for the classic tunnel mechanics problem of the ground response curve to elastoplastic grounds satisfying a non-linear Mohr's failure criterion. A linear (Coulomb-type) plastic potential function is used, leading to a non-associated flow law, and edge plastic flow is considered in the plastic zone. The solution for a general non-linear Mohr's failure criterion is semi-analytical in that it requires the evaluation of definite integrals. In the special case of the Hoek–Brown criterion, however, these integrals are calculated analytically, resulting in a rigorous closed-form series solution. The applicability of the derived solution is illustrated through the example of the Yacambú-Quibor tunnel, where very large deformations were observed when crossing of weak graphitic phyllites. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In order to evaluate analytically the ITZ volume fraction (*f _{ITZ}*) in concrete, a three phase model is proposed for the random concrete microstructure using the Voronoï tessellation. Within this model, the ITZ local thickness is a statistical variable depending on the local paste thickness available between each couple of neighbouring aggregates. The

Evaluating the induced subsidence is a critical step in multi-seam longwall mining. Numerical modelling can be a cost-effective approach to this problem. Numerical evaluation of longwall mining-induced subsidence is much more complicated when more than one seam is to be extracted. Only a few research works have dealt with this problem. This paper discusses the essential requirements of a robust numerical modelling approach to simulation of multi-seam longwall mining-induced subsidence. In light of these requirements, the previous works on this topic are critically reviewed. A simple yet robust FEM-based modelling approach is also proposed that is capable of simulating caving process, rock mass deterioration and subsidence around multi-seam excavations. The effectiveness of this approach in comparison with two other conventional FEM approaches is demonstrated through numerical examples of two different multi-seam mining configurations. Results show that the proposed numerical modelling approach is the only robust method, which is capable of simulating multi-seam subsidence in both demonstrated cases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a new simplified method, based on Hypothesis B, for calculating the consolidation settlements of double soil layers exhibiting creep. In the new simplified Hypothesis B method, different stress–strain states including over-consolidation and normal consolidation states can be considered with the help of the ‘equivalent time’ concept. Zhu and Yin method and US Navy method are adopted to calculate the average degree of consolidation for a double soil layer profile. This new simplified Hypothesis B method is then used to calculate the consolidation settlements of double soil layers, which have two different total thicknesses of soil layer (4 m and 8 m) and three different OCR values (Over-Consolidation Ratio, *OCR* = 1, 1.5 and 2). The accuracy and verification of this new simplified method are examined by comparing the calculated results with simulation results from a fully coupled finite element (FE) program using a soft soil creep model. Four cases of double layer soil profiles are analyzed. Hypothesis A method with US Navy method for the average degree of consolidation has also been used to for calculating consolidation settlements of the same cases. For *Case I*(4*m*) and *Case III*(8*m*), it is found that curves of the new simplified Hypothesis B method using both Zhu and Yin method and US Navy method are very close to the results from FE simulations with the *relative errors* within 8.5%. For *Case II*(4*m*) and *Case IV*(8*m*), it is found that curves of the new simplified Hypothesis B method using Zhu and Yin method agree better with results from FE simulations with the *relative errors* within 11.7% than curves of the new simplified Hypothesis B method adopting US Navy method with the *relative error* up to 36.1%. Curves of Hypothesis A method adopting US Navy method have the *relative error* up to 55.0% among all four cases. In overall, the new simplified Hypothesis B method is suitable for calculation of consolidation settlements of double soil layers exhibiting creep, in which, Zhu and Yin method is recommended to obtain the average degree of consolidation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

For civil engineering structures with a tightness role, structural permeability is a key issue. In this context, this paper presents a new proposition of a numerical modelling of leakage rate through a cracked concrete structure undergoing mode I cracking. The mechanical state of the material, considered in the framework of continuum mechanics based on finite element modelling, is described by means of the stress-based nonlocal damage model which takes into account the stress state and provides realistic local mechanical fields. A semi-discrete method based on the strong discontinuity approach to estimate crack opening is then considered in the post-treatment phase. Using a Poiseuille's like relation, the coupling between the mechanical state of the material and its dry gas conductivity is performed.

For validation purposes, an original experimental campaign is conducted on a dry concrete disc loaded in a splitting setup. During the loading, gas conductivity and digital image correlation analysis are performed. The comparison with the 3D experimental mechanical global response highlights the performance of the mechanical model. The comparison between crack openings measured by digital image correlation and estimated by the strong discontinuity method shows a good agreement.

Finally, the results of the semi-discrete approach coupled with the gas conductivity compared with experimental data show a good estimation of the structural conductivity. Consequently, if the mechanical problem is well modelled at the global scale, then the proposed approach provides good estimation of gas conductivity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The paper proposes a stress-driven integration strategy for Perzyna-type viscoplastic constitutive models, which leads also to a convenient algorithm for viscoplastic relaxation schemes. A generalized trapezoidal rule for the strain increment, combined with a linearized form of the yield function and flow rules, leads to a plasticity-like compliance operator that can be explicitly inverted to give an algorithmic tangent stiffness tensor also denoted as the m-AGC tangent operator. This operator is combined with the stress-prescribed integration scheme, to obtain a natural error indicator that can be used as a convergence criterion of the intra-step iterations (in physical viscoplasticity), or to a variable time-step size in viscoplastic relaxation schemes based on a single linear calculation per time step. The proposed schemes have been implemented for an existing zero-thickness interface constitutive model. Some numerical application examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of the new schemes proposed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The microstructure of rock was numerically reproduced by a polygonal grain-based model, and its mechanical behavior was examined by performing the uniaxial compression test and Brazilian tests via the Universal Distinct Element Code. The numerical results of the model demonstrated good agreement with the experimental results obtained with rock specimens in terms of the stress–strain behavior, strength characteristics, and brittle fracture phenomenon. An encouraging result is that the grain-based model-Universal Distinct Element Code model can reproduce a low ratio of tensile to compressive strength of 1/20 to 1/10 without the need for an additional process. This finding is ascribed to the fact that the geometrical features of polygons can effectively capture the effects of angularity, finite rotation, and interlocking of grains that exist in reality. A numerical methodology to monitor the evolution of micro-cracks was developed, which enabled us to examine the progressive process of the failure and distinguish the contribution of tensile cracking to the process from that of shear cracking. From the observations of the micro-cracking process in reference to the stress–strain relation, crack initiation stress, and crack damage stress, it can be concluded that the failure process of the model closely resembles the microscopic observations of rock. We also carried out a parametric study to examine the relationships between the microscopic properties and the macroscopic behavior of the model. Depending on the micro-properties, the model exhibited a variety of responses to the external load in terms of the strength and deformation characteristics, the evolution of micro-cracks, and the post-peak behavior. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The present study investigates propagation of a cohesive crack in non-isothermal unsaturated porous medium under mode I conditions. Basic points of skeleton deformation, moisture, and heat transfer for unsaturated porous medium are presented. Boundary conditions on the crack surface that consist of mechanical interaction of the crack and the porous medium, water, and heat flows through the crack are taken into consideration. For spatial discretization, the extended finite element method is used. This method uses enriched shape functions in addition to ordinary shape functions for approximation of displacement, pressure, and temperature fields. The Heaviside step function and the distance function are exploited as enrichment functions for representing the crack surfaces displacement and the discontinuous vertical gradients of the pressure and temperature fields along the crack, respectively. For temporal discretization, backward finite difference scheme is applied. Problems solved from the literature show the validity of the model as well as the dependency of structural response on the material properties and loading. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a numerical formulation for a three dimensional elasto-plastic interface, which can be coupled with an embedded beam element in order to model its non-linear interaction with the surrounding solid medium. The formulation is herein implemented for lateral loading of piles but is able to represent soil-pile interaction phenomena in a general manner for different types of loading conditions or ground movements. The interface is formulated in order to capture localized material plasticity in the soil surrounding the pile within the range of small to moderate lateral displacements. The interface is formulated following two different approaches: (i) in terms of beam degrees of freedoms; and (ii) considering the displacement field of the solid domain. Each of these alternatives has its own advantages and shortcomings, which are discussed in this paper. The paper presents a comparison of the results obtained by means of the present formulation and by other well-established analysis methods and test results published in the literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Because of a multitude of steep slopes being constructed adjacent to roadways, there is greater concern of landslide occurrence, particularly in instances where poor geomaterials are present. Installation of piles along the slope is one commonly adopted method. This paper presents the assessment of the stability of a rock slope with stabilizing piles based on kinematic analysis. The pile effect is introduced with a resultant lateral force and a moment. Upper bound solutions of the pile's lateral force are derived with a log-spiral rotational failure mechanism. The slope performance based on the bearing capacity of surcharge loading is also discussed with consideration of pore water pressure. In order to substantiate the derived theoretical solutions, numerical analysis with optimization technique is carried out. Results demonstrate that rock materials with high quality are conducive to ensure slope stability. Reduced lateral force on the pile is produced with lower rock weight, slope height, and surcharge loading. Finally, the safety factor and stability coefficient are discussed to complete the evaluation of the slope stability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No abstract is available for this article.

]]>This paper describes a fully coupled finite element/finite volume approach for simulating field-scale hydraulically driven fractures in three dimensions, using massively parallel computing platforms. The proposed method is capable of capturing realistic representations of local heterogeneities, layering and natural fracture networks in a reservoir. A detailed description of the numerical implementation is provided, along with numerical studies comparing the model with both analytical solutions and experimental results. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for modeling large-scale problems involving hydraulically driven fractures in three dimensions. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

We present a stabilized extended finite element formulation to simulate the hydraulic fracturing process in an elasto-plastic medium. The fracture propagation process is governed by a cohesive fracture model, where a trilinear traction-separation law is used to describe normal contact, cohesion and strength softening on the fracture face. Fluid flow inside the fracture channel is governed by the lubrication equation, and the flow rate is related to the fluid pressure gradient by the ‘cubic’ law. Fluid leak off happens only in the normal direction and is assumed to be governed by the Carter's leak-off model. We propose a ‘local’ U-P (displacement-pressure) formulation to discretize the fluid-solid coupled system, where volume shape functions are used to interpolate the fluid pressure field on the fracture face. The ‘local’ U-P approach is compatible with the extended finite element framework, and a separate mesh is not required to describe the fluid flow. The coupled system of equations is solved iteratively by the standard Newton-Raphson method. We identify instability issues associated with the fluid flow inside the fracture channel, and use the polynomial pressure projection method to reduce the pressure oscillations resulting from the instability. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed framework is effective in modeling 3D hydraulic fracture propagation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper integrates random field simulation of soil spatial variability with numerical modeling of coupled flow and deformation to investigate consolidation in spatially random unsaturated soil. The spatial variability of soil properties is simulated using the covariance matrix decomposition method. The random soil properties are imported into an interactive multiphysics software COMSOL to solve the governing partial differential equations. The effects of the spatial variability of Young's modulus and saturated permeability together with unsaturated hydraulic parameters on the dissipation of excess pore water pressure and settlement are investigated using an example of consolidation in a saturated-unsaturated soil column because of loading. It is found that the surface settlement and the pore water pressure profile during the process of consolidation are significantly affected by the spatially varying Young's modulus. The mean value of the settlement of the spatially random soil is more than 100% greater than that of the deterministic case, and the surface settlement is subject to large uncertainty, which implies that consolidation settlement is difficult to predict accurately based on the conventional deterministic approach. The uncertainty of the settlement increases with the scale of fluctuation because of the averaging effect of spatial variability. The effects of spatial variability of saturated permeability *k _{sat}* and air entry parameters are much less significant than that of elastic modulus. The spatial variability of air entry value parameters affects the uncertainties of settlement and excess pore pressure mostly in the unsaturated zone. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper focuses on the sensitivity analysis for coupled thermo–hydro–mechanical problems employing both local and global sensitivity methods. A derivative-based method is used in the local sensitivity approach, whereas the random balance designs method is used for the global sensitivity analysis. The main goal is to investigate the effect of uncertainties in the constitutive parameters on the results from nonlinear coupled thermo–hydro–mechanical analyses of unsaturated soil behavior whose modeling generally involves large sets of constitutive relations. Knowing the parameter sensitivity allows to qualitatively assess the validity of the results obtained by computational simulations of high-risk situations, for example, emerging nuclear waste repositories. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for asphaltic materials is presented within the context of bounding surface plasticity theory, taking into account the effects of the stress state, void binder degree of saturation, temperature and strain rate on the material behaviour. A stress state dependent non-linear elasticity model is introduced to represent time-independent recoverable portion of the deformation. The consistent visco-plasticity framework is utilised to capture the rate-dependent, non-recoverable strain components. The material parameters introduced in the model are identified, and their determination from conventional laboratory tests is discussed. The capability of the model to reproduce experimentally observed response of asphaltic materials is demonstrated through numerical simulations of several laboratory test data from the literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The ultimate bearing capacity problem of column-reinforced foundations under inclined loading is investigated within the framework of static and kinematic approaches of yield design theory. The configuration of a native soft clayey soil reinforced by either a group of purely cohesive columns (lime-column technique) or a group of purely frictional columns (stone-column technique) is analyzed under plane strain conditions. First, lower bound estimates are derived for the ultimate bearing capacity by considering statically admissible piecewise linear stress distributions that comply with the local strength conditions of the constitutive materials. The problem is then handled by means of the yield design kinematic approach of limit analysis through the implementation of several failure mechanisms, allowing the formulation of upper bound estimates for the ultimate bearing capacity. A series of finite element limit load solutions obtained from numerical elastoplastic simulations suggests that the predictions derived from the kinematic approach appear to be more accurate than the estimates obtained from the static approach. Comparison with available results obtained in the context of yield design homogenization demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed direct analysis, which may therefore be viewed as complementary approach to homogenization-based approaches when a small number of columns is involved. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Since the early work of Athey (1930), there have been many attempts to describe the various nonlinear behaviors of rocks and soils in terms of functionals having only a few parameters, while nevertheless being able to fit the complicated available data with satisfactory accuracy. Such approaches have not been universally applied however, and the present analyses are intended to draw attention to the possibility of using such nonlinear fitting methods on old as well as new data sets. In particular, some special emphasis is placed here on re-examining the well-known laboratory data of Coyner (1984) on rocks in light of such modeling tools, and we find that the nonlinear approach again has several clear advantages – especially in terms of reducing the number of variables needed to describe the observed behavior of both bulk modulus and porosity of rocks undergoing large changes in pressure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Soil properties are indispensable input parameters in geotechnical design and analysis. In engineering practice, particularly for projects with relatively small or medium sizes, soil properties are often not measured directly, but estimated from geotechnical design charts using results of some commonly used laboratory or *in situ* tests. For example, effective friction angle ϕ′ of soil is frequently estimated using standard penetration test (SPT) *N* values and design charts relating SPT *N* values to ϕ′. Note that directly measured ϕ′ data are generally not available when (and probably why) the use of design charts is needed. Because design charts are usually developed from past observation data, on either empirical or semi-theoretical basis, uncertainty is unavoidably involved in the design charts. This situation leads to two important questions in engineering practice: how good or reliable are the soil properties estimated in a specific site when using the design charts? (or how to measure the performance of the design charts in a specific site?); and how to incorporate rationally the model uncertainty when estimating soil properties using the design charts? This paper aims to address these two questions by developing a Bayesian statistical approach. In this paper, the second question is firstly addressed (i.e., soil properties are probabilistically characterized by rationally incorporating the model uncertainty in the design chart). Then, based on the characterization results obtained, an index is proposed to evaluate the site-specific performance of design charts (i.e., to address the first question). Equations are derived for the proposed approach, and the proposed approach is illustrated using both real and simulated SPT data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.