Based on relevant experimental data of a petroleum cement paste under mechanical loading and chemical leaching, an elastic-plastic model is first proposed by taking into account plastic shearing and pore collapse. The degradation of mechanical properties induced by the chemical leaching is characterized by a chemical damage variable which is defined as the increase of porosity. Both elastic and plastic properties of the cement paste are affected by the chemical damage. The proposed model is calibrated from and applied to describe mechanical responses in triaxial compression tests respectively on sound and fully leached samples. In the second part, a phenomenological chemical model is defined to establish the relationship between porosity change and calcium dissolution process. The dissolution kinetics is governed by a diffusion law taking into account the variation of diffusion coefficient with calcium concentration. The chemical model is coupled with the mechanical model, and both are applied to describe mechanical response of cement paste samples subjected to progressive chemical leaching and compressive stresses. Comparisons between experimental data and numerical results are presented.

Deep excavation in some geological media needs lining of the gallery. This could limit the extent of the so-called excavation damaged zone and the resulting convergence of the material due to tunneling. Boom clay, the reference potential host rock in Belgium for disposal of high-level radioactive waste, is one of these media for which lining of the gallery walls is essential. A correct simulation of the lining behavior in the course of the excavation process, where the rock comes into contact with the lining, and in the long term, remains a significant challenge in analysis of the whole coupled phenomena of rock in interaction with the lining. This study aims to numerically model the lining behavior. The main objective is to develop a model that could realistically simulate the behavior of a discontinuous lining made of concrete segments. We propose to numerically analyze the response of the blocks in contact with each other and in interaction with rock, with the use of zero-thickness interface elements. To validate the developed model and a proposed approach, a particular analysis compares the obtained results with the available *in situ* measurements. This study then discusses the deficiency of the simplistic model that considers a continuous lining. In addition, regarding the contact mechanism on the interface between the rock and the lining, the obtained results demonstrate an interesting relation between the contact phenomena and the shear banding within the rock around the gallery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Experimental evidence has shown that the liquefaction instability of sands can be affected by its material density, stress state, and inherent anisotropy. In order to predict the initiation of the static liquefaction of inherent cross-anisotropic sands under multidimensional stress conditions, a rational constitutive model is needed. An elastoplasticity model able to capture the influences of intermediate principal stress ratio (*b* = (*σ*_{2} − *σ*_{3})/(*σ*_{1} − *σ*_{3})) and loading direction on stress–strain relationships and volumetric properties was proposed. The yield function was formulated to be controlled by Lode angle, loading direction, and material state; the stress–dilatancy was a material state-dependent function. After using the existing drained hollow cylinder tests to validate the proposed model, this model was used to simulate the existing undrained hollow cylinder tests. During this simulation, the second-order work criterion was used to determine the initiation of static liquefaction. The results showed that an increase in both the intermediate principal stress ratio and the loading angle induces a decrease in the second-order work. Static liquefaction is initiated more easily at a stress state with a large intermediate principal stress ratio and a large loading angle, and the mobilized friction angle at the instability points decreases with the intermediate principal stress ratio and the loading angle. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The strength anisotropy of granular materials deposited under gravity has mostly been attributed to elongated particles' tendency to align long axes along the bedding plane direction. However, recent experiments on near-spherical glass beads, for which preferred particle alignment is inapplicable, have exhibited surprisingly strong strength anisotropy. This study tests the hypothesis that certain amount of fabric anisotropy caused by the anisotropic stress during deposition under gravity can be locked in a circular-particle deposit. Such locked-in fabric anisotropy can withstand isotropic consolidation and leads to significant strength anisotropy. 2D discrete element method simulations of direct shear tests on circular-particle deposits are conducted in this study, allowing for the monitoring of both stress and fabric. Simulations on both monodispersed and polydispersed circular-particle samples generated under downward gravitational acceleration exhibit clear anisotropy in shear strength, thereby proving the hypothesis. When using contact normal-based and void-based fabric tensors to quantify fabric anisotropy in the material, we find that the intensity of anisotropy is discernible but low prior to shearing and is dependent on the consolidation process and the dispersity of the sample. The fact that samples with very low anisotropy intensity measurements still exhibit fairly strong strength anisotropy suggests that current typical contact normal-based and void-based second-order fabric tensor formulations may not be very effective in reflecting the anisotropic peak shear strength of granular materials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The estimation of wave transmission across the fractured rock masses is of great importance for rock engineers to assess the stability of rock slopes in open pit mines. Presence of fault, as a major discontinuity, in the jointed rock mass can significantly impact on the peak particle velocity and transmission of blast waves, particularly where a fault contains a thick infilling with weak mechanical properties. This paper aims to study the effect of fault properties on transmission of blasting waves using the distinct element method. First, a validation study was carried out on the wave transmission across a single joint and different rock mediums through undertaking a comparative study against analytical models. Then, the transmission of blast wave across a fault with thick infilling in the Golgohar iron mine, Iran, was numerically studied, and the results were compared with the field measurements. The blast wave was numerically simulated using a hybrid finite element and finite difference code which then the outcome was used as the input for the distinct element method analysis. The measured uplift of hanging wall, as a result of wave transmission across the fault, in the numerical model agrees well with the recorded field measurement. Finally, the validated numerical model was used to study the effect of fault properties on wave transmission. It was found that the fault inclination angle is the most effective parameter on the peak particle velocity and uplift. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Methane hydrate-bearing sediments exist throughout the world in continental margins and in Arctic permafrost. Hydrates are ice-like compounds when dissociate due to temperature rise or reduction in fluid pressure, release gas. Because of the mechanical property changes caused by dissociation in which the loads supported by the hydrates are transferred to soil grains, these sediments may become unstable. To quantify the risk of ground instability triggered by dissociation, which may happen during operation to extract methane gas or from climate changes, a reliable predictive model is indispensable. Even though many models have been proposed, a detailed validation of the ability to model dissociation impact is still needed. This study investigated the adequacy of an spatially mobilized plane constitutive model and a modeling framework using laboratory-induced dissociation tests under shear from literature. Using laboratory-imposed temperature and pressure changes and the resulting hydrate saturation changes as input, this study was able to capture the geomechanical responses and determine the stability state of methane hydrate-bearing sediments as observed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper develops a method to analyze the piled raft foundation under vertical harmonic load. This method takes into account the interactions among the piles, soil, and raft. The responses of the piles and raft are formulated as a series of equations in a suitable way and that of layered soils is simulated with the use of the analytical layer-element method. Then, according to the equilibrium and continuity conditions at the piles–soil–raft interface, solutions for the piled raft systems are obtained and further demonstrated to be correct through comparing with the existing results. Finally, some examples are given to investigate the influence of the raft, pile length-diameter ratio, and layering on the response of the piled raft foundations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents semi-analytical solutions to Fredlund and Hasan's one-dimensional consolidation of unsaturated soils with semi-permeable drainage boundary under time-dependent loadings. Two variables are introduced to transform two coupled governing equations of pore-water and pore-air pressures into an equivalent set of partial differential equations, which are easily solved by the Laplace transform. The pore-water pressure, pore-air pressure and settlement are obtained in the Laplace domain. Crump's method is adopted to perform the inverse Laplace transform in order to obtain semi-analytical solutions in time domain. It is shown that the present solutions are more general and have a good agreement with the existing solutions from literatures. Furthermore, the current solutions can also be degenerated into conventional solutions to one-dimensional consolidation of unsaturated soils with homogeneous boundaries. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to illustrate consolidation behavior of unsaturated soils under four types of time-dependent loadings, including instantaneous loading, ramp loading, exponential loading and sinusoidal loading. Parametric studies are illustrated by variations of pore-air pressure, pore-water pressure and settlement at different values of the ratio of air–water permeability coefficient, depth and loading parameters. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wave propagation and localization in ordered and disordered multi-span beams on elastic foundations due to moving harmonic loads are investigated by using the transfer matrix methodology. The transfer matrix, as a function of the frequency and velocity of the moving harmonic load, of the periodic beam is formulated in a coordinate system moving with the load. The expressions of critical velocities, cut-off frequency of an associated uniform beam without discrete spaced supports, are determined through the analysis of the wavenumbers, and the dynamic responses of the beam are also examined. For the ordered and disordered case, the propagation constants and localization factors are respectively employed to identify the velocity and frequency pass bands and stop bands in order to examine whether the perturbation can propagate along the structure or not. The effects of the periodicity, disorder level, excitation frequency, and moving velocity are studied in detail. The validity of the obtained results is confirmed by evaluating the transverse deformation of the beams through the finite element simulations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Granular materials react with complicated mechanical responses when subjected to external loading paths. This leads to sophisticated constitutive formulations requiring large numbers of parameters. A powerful and straightforward way consists in developing micro-mechanical models embedding both micro-scale and meso-scale. This paper proposes a 3D micro-mechanical model taking into account an intermediate scale (meso-scale) that makes it possible to describe a variety of constitutive features in a natural way. The comparison between experimental tests and numerical simulations reveals the predictive capability of this model. Particularly, several simulations are carried out with different confining pressures and initial void ratios, based on the fact that the critical state is quantitatively described without requiring any critical state formulations and parameter. The model mechanism is also analyzed from a microscopic view, wherein the evolution of some key microscopic parameters is investigated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Combined effects of matrix plastic compressibility and void shape are investigated for ductile porous materials. To this end, a spheroidal volume containing a confocal spheroidal (prolate or oblate) void subjected to uniform strain rate boundary conditions has been first studied. A Green type matrix is chosen as a prototype for investigating effects of plastic compressibility. This is carried out by using a kinematics limit analysis theory from which a closed-form expression of the macroscopic criterion is established for the considered class of materials. These results are then extended to ductile porous materials made up of a green matrix containing randomly oriented spheroidal voids. In the framework of a two-step homogenization procedure, the obtained results are implemented to describe the macroscopic behavior of double porous materials involving spherical voids at the microscale and randomly oriented and distributed spheroidal voids at the mesoscale. For validation purpose, the new derived criteria are assessed and validated by comparing their predictions to available upper bounds and numerical data from literature. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The use of the asymptotic limit can greatly simplify the theoretical analysis of chemical dissolution front instabilities in fluid-saturated rocks and therefore make it possible to obtain mathematical solutions, which often play a crucial role in understanding the propagation behavior of chemical dissolution fronts in chemical dissolution systems. However, there has been a debate in recent years that the asymptotic limit of the acid dissolution capacity (i.e., the acid dissolution capacity number approaching zero) alone cannot lead to a sharp dissolution front of the Stefan type in the acidization dissolution system, in which the dissolvable minerals of carbonate rocks are chemically dissolved by the injected acid flow. The acid dissolution capacity number is commonly defined as the ratio of the volume of the carbonate rock dissolved by an acid to that of the acid. In this paper, we use four different proof methods, including (i) direct use of the fundamental concepts; (ii) use of the mathematical governing equations of an acidization dissolution system; (iii) use of the different time scaling approach; and (iv) use of a moving coordinate system approach, to demonstrate that the asymptotic limit of the acid dissolution capacity can indeed lead to sharp dissolution fronts of the Stefan type in acidization dissolution systems on a much larger time scale (than the dissolution time scale). Our new finding is that on the reaction time scale, the condition of the conventional time derivative of porosity approaching zero alone can ensure that the acidization dissolution front has a sharp shape of the Stefan type. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An analytical approach using the three-dimensional displacement of a soil is investigated to provide analytical solutions of the horizontal response of a circular pile subjected to lateral loads in nonhomogeneous soil. The rocking stiffness coefficient of the pile shaft in homogeneous soil is derived from the analytical solution taking into account the three-dimensional displacement represented in terms of scalar potentials in the elastic three-dimensional analysis. The lateral stiffness coefficient of the pile shaft in nonhomogeneous soil is derived from the rocking stiffness coefficient taking into account the rocking rotation of a rigid pile shaft. The relationship between horizontal displacement, rotation, moment, and shear force of a pile subjected to horizontal loads in nonhomogeneous soil is obtainable in the form of the recurrence equation. The formulation of the lateral displacement and rotation of the pile base subjected to lateral loads in nonhomogeneous soils is presented by taking into account Mindlin's equation and the equivalent thickness for soil layers in the equivalent elastic method. There is little difference between lateral, rocking, and couple stiffness coefficients each obtained from both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods except for the case of Poisson's ratio near 0.5. The comparison of results calculated by the current method for a pile subjected to lateral loads in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous soils has shown good agreement with those obtained from analytical and numerical methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

To accurately predict soil volume changes under thermal cycles is of great importance for analysing the performance of many earth structures such as the energy pile and energy storage system. Most of the existing thermo-mechanical models focus on soil behaviour under monotonic thermal loading only, and they are not able to capture soil volume changes under thermal cycles. In this study, a constitutive model is proposed to simulate volume changes of saturated soil subjected to cyclic heating and cooling. Two surfaces are defined and used: a bounding surface and a memory surface. The bounding surface and memory surface are mainly controlled by the preconsolidation pressure (a function of plastic volumetric strain) and the maximum stress experienced by the soil, respectively. Under thermal cycles, the distance of the two surfaces and plastic modulus increase with an accumulation of plastic strain. By adopting the double surface concept, a new elastoplastic model is derived from an existing single bounding surface thermo-mechanical model. Comparisons between model predictions and experimental results reveal that the proposed model is able to capture soil volume changes under thermal cycles well. The plastic strain accumulates under thermal cycles, but at a decreasing rate, until stabilization. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Soil erosion around defective underground pipes can cause ground collapses and sinkholes in urban areas. Most of these soil erosion events are caused by fluidization of the surrounding soil with subsequent washing into defective sewer pipes. In this study, this soil erosion process is simplified as the gradual washout of sand particles mixed with water through an orifice. The discrete element method is used to simulate the large deformation behavior of the sand particles, and the Darcy fluid model is coupled with this approach to simulate fluid flow through porous sand media. A coupled 3D discrete element model is developed and implemented based on this scheme. To simulate previous experiments using this coupled model considering the current computing capacity, we incorporated a ‘supply layer’ to study the continuous erosion process. The coupled model can predict the erosion flow rates of sand and water and the shape of erosion void. Thus, the model can be used as an effective and efficient tool to investigate the soil erosion process around defective pipes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper deals with a model for time-dependent compaction of soil-like porous materials. Although the model is originally developed for degradation-induced settlements in municipal solid waste landfills, it may be applied to any settlements caused by solid mass loss as well. The presented model is part of a coupled THMC model, that is, a model that considers coupled thermal, hydraulical, mechanical and chemical effects. The Theory of Porous Media is used as continuum mechanical framework. For kinematic description, large strain continuum mechanics are applied. The paper provides a brief insight into the coupled model, but concentrates on the description of the compaction model and its application within coupled analyses of a laboratory experiment and a landfill structure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Heterogeneities, such as fractures and cracks, are ubiquitous in porous rocks. Mesoscopic heterogeneities, that is, heterogeneities on length scales much larger than typical pore size but much smaller than the wavelength, are increasingly believed to be responsible for significant wave energy loss in the seismic frequency band. When a compressional wave stresses a material containing mesoscopic heterogeneities, the more compliant parts of the material (e.g., fractures and cracks) respond with a greater fluid pressure than the stiffer portions (e.g., matrix pores). The induced fluid flow, resulting from the pressure gradients developed on such scale, is called mesoscopic flow. In the present study, the double-porosity dual-permeability model is adopted to incorporate mesoscopic heterogeneities into rock models to account for the attenuation of wave energy. Based on the model, the damping effect due to mesoscopic flow in a one-dimensional porous structure is investigated. Analytical solutions for several boundary-value problems are obtained in the frequency domain. The dynamic responses of infinite and finite porous layer are examined. Numerical calculations show that the damping effect of mesoscopic flow is significant on the pore pressure response and the resulting effective stress. For the displacement, the effect is seen only at the very low frequency range or near the resonance frequencies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The paper explores application of the engineered increase in soil permeability, achieved using reaction of guanidinium solutions with smectite soils, to geotechnical problems. The comparison between the finite element analysis of the enhanced permeability model for axisymmetric conditions and a simplified analytical solution demonstrates the importance of accounting for diffusive and dispersive fluxes. In order to illustrate possible practical application of the proposed soil improvement technique, two geotechnical examples have been numerically explored: improving performance of a ground water well and the stabilization of a slope by chemically enhanced drainage. For the well application, it has been demonstrated that for a relatively small degree of treatment, the power consumption can be reduced to a half, compared with the non-treated soil. For the slope stability application, the water table downstream of the drain can be significantly lowered using moderate pump/collector pressures at the centre of the drain, causing a higher increase in the factor of safety for a larger area subjected to the chemically enhanced drainage. The particularly promising result is that in both applications the largest gain in the well/drain efficiency has been observed for smaller chemically enhanced areas, where a short duration of treatment and small amounts of chemicals decrease the power consumption and increase the safety factor at the highest rate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A hybrid discrete-continuum numerical scheme is developed to study the behavior of a hydraulic fracture crossing natural fractures. The fully coupled hybrid scheme utilizes a discrete element model for an inner domain, within which the hydraulic fracture propagates and interacts with natural fractures. The inner domain is embedded in an outer continuum domain that is implemented to extend the length of the hydraulic fracture and to better approximate the boundary effects. The fracture is identified to propagate initially in the viscosity-dominated regime, and the numerical scheme is calibrated by using the theoretical plane strain hydraulic fracture solution. The simulation results for orthogonal crossing indicate three fundamental crossing scenarios, which occur for various stress ratios and friction coefficients of the natural fracture: (i) no crossing, that is, the hydraulic fracture is arrested by the natural fracture and makes a T-shape intersection; (ii) offset crossing, that is, the hydraulic fracture crosses the natural fracture with an offset; and (iii) direct crossing, that is, the hydraulic fracture directly crosses the natural fracture without diversion. Each crossing scenario is associated with a distinct net pressure history. Additionally, the effects of strength contrast and stiffness contrast of rock materials and intersection angle between the hydraulic fracture and the natural fracture are also investigated. The simulations also illustrate that the level of fracturing complexity increases as the number and extent of the natural fractures increase. As a result, we can conclude that complex hydraulic fracture propagation patterns occur because of complicated crossing behavior during the stimulation of naturally fractured reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Shale, like many other sedimentary rocks, is typically heterogeneous and anisotropic and is characterized by partial alignment of anisotropic clay minerals and naturally formed bedding planes. In this study, a micromechanical framework based on the lattice discrete particle model is formulated to capture these features. Material anisotropy is introduced through an approximated geometric description of shale internal structure, which includes representation of material property variation with orientation and explicit modeling of parallel lamination. The model is calibrated by carrying out numerical simulations to match various experimental data, including the ones relevant to elastic properties, Brazilian tensile strength, and unconfined compressive strength. Furthermore, parametric study is performed to investigate the relationship between the mesoscale parameters and the macroscopic properties. It is shown that the dependence of the elastic stiffness, strength, and failure mode on loading orientation can be captured successfully. Finally, a homogenization approach based on the asymptotic expansion of field variables is applied to upscale the proposed micromechanical model, and the properties of the homogenized model are analyzed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The transient response of a cylindrical casing–cement structure in a poroelastic stratum under dynamic radial tractions is one of the significant issues during the analysis of downhole operations and the selection of safe material. Based on the Biot theory and general elastic mechanics, this paper gives a set of exact solutions for radial displacement, stresses for the casing–cement system and the pore pressure of the infinite surrounding poroelastic stratum in the Laplace transform space. Solutions are presented for three different types of transient radial loadings acting on the surface of casing, i.e., suddenly applied constant load, gradually applied step load and triangular pulse load. Time domain solutions are obtained using a reliable numerical method of inverse Laplace transforms. A detailed parametric study about the transient response is presented both at the casing–cement interface and the cement–stratum interface, and the distributions of the pore pressure and the effective stresses in the stratum are also examined. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A new computing method is proposed for reliable analysis. The limit state function is implicit and nonlinear in reliability analysis of slopes and is difficult to apply by traditional reliability methods, especially in large-scale project applications. Relevance vector machines (RVMs) are capable of approximating the limit state function without the need for additional assumptions regarding the function form, as opposed to traditional polynomial response surfaces. RVMs were adapted to obtain the limit state function. We propose an RVM-based response surface method combined with the first-order reliability method for slope reliability analysis and describe its step-by-step implementation. The reliability index obtained from the proposed method shows excellent agreement with traditional response surface method results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Along with the applicability of optimization algorithms, there are lots of features that can affect the functioning of the optimization techniques. The main purpose of this paper is investigating the significance of boundary constraint handling (BCH) schemes on the performance of optimization algorithms. To this end, numbers of deterministic and probabilistic BCH approaches are applied to one of the most recent proposed optimization techniques, named interior search algorithm (ISA). Apart from the implementing different BCH methods, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to find an appropriate setting for the only parameter of ISA. Concrete cantilever retaining wall design as one of the most important geotechnical problems is tackled to declare proficiency of the ISA algorithm, on the one hand, and benchmark the effect of BCH schemes on the final results, on the contrary. As results demonstrate, various BCH approaches have a perceptible impact on the algorithm performance. In like manner, the essential parameter of ISA can also play a pivotal role in this algorithm's efficiency. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The effects of fractures on wave propagation problems are increasingly abstracting the attention of scholars and engineers in rock engineering field. This study aims to fully validate the ability of discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) to model normal P-wave propagation across rock fractures. The effects of a single fracture and multiple parallel fractures are all tested. The results indicate that DDA can accurately reflect the fracture effects, including the fractures stiffness, the fracture spacing and the fracture number, and the effects of incident wave frequency on one-dimensional P-wave propagation problems. Thus, DDA is able to deal well with normal incident P-wave propagation problems. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

According to field feedbacks from high-speed lines (HSL), the increase of train operating speeds is responsible for unusual fast evolving geometrical disorders in ballasted tracks. This paper deals with the search of solutions applicable at the design stage to mitigate these disorders. The starting point of the present work relies on the assumption, comforted by the literature, of a strong correlation between disorders and vertical accelerations in the ballast layer induced by the train passages. This led us focus herein on the calculation and the analysis of accelerations in the railway structure. The vertical accelerations (*γ*_{z}) are computed using the in-house developed numerical program ViscoRail and on the basis of a reference HSL. These are shown to increase strongly with the train speed attesting to the link between the train speed and the geometrical disorders in ballast. Then, other simulations are run varying some structural parameters to evaluate their impact on the acceleration field *γ*_{z}. In that way, we show that decreasing the stiffness of the mechanical connection between the rails and the ballast, increasing the moment of inertia of the rails or the Young modulus of the sub-ballast layer, leads to a decrease of *γ*_{z} and could provide solutions for the design of future HSL. The solution consisting in the incorporation of an asphalt sub-ballast layer, as already experimented on sites, is finally examined in more details. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Assuming that the pile variable cross section interacts with the surrounding soil in the same way as the pile toe does with the bearing stratus, the interaction of pile variable cross section with the surrounding soil is represented by a Voigt model, which consists of a spring and a damper connected in parallel, and the spring constant and damper coefficient are derived. Thus, a more rigid pile–soil interaction model is proposed. The surrounding soil layers are modeled as axisymmetric continuum in which its vertical displacements are taken into account and the pile is assumed to be a Rayleigh–Love rod with material damping. Allowing for soil properties and pile defects, the pile–soil system is divided into several layers. By means of Laplace transform, the governing equations of soil layers are solved in frequency domain, and a new relationship linking the impedance functions at the variable-section interface between the adjacent pile segments is derived using a Heaviside step function, which is called amended impedance function transfer method. On this basis, the impedance function at pile top is derived by amended impedance function transfer method proposed in this paper. Then, the velocity response at pile top can be obtained by means of inverse Fourier transform and convolution theorem. The effects of pile–soil system parameters are studied, and some conclusions are proposed. Then, an engineering example is given to confirm the rationality of the solution proposed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This investigation is concerned with the mathematical analysis of a viscoelastic prestressed pipe pile embedded in multilayered soil under vertical dynamic excitation. The pile surrounding soil is governed by the plane strain model, and the soil plug is assumed to be an additional mass connected to the pipe pile shaft by applying the distributed Voigt model. Meanwhile, the prestressed pipe pile is assumed to be a vertical, viscoelastic, and hollow cylinder governed by the one-dimensional wave equation. Then, analytical solutions of the dynamic response of the pipe pile in the frequency domain are derived by means of the Laplace transform and impedance function transfer method. Subsequently, the corresponding quasi-analytical solution in the time domain for the case of the prestressed pipe pile undergoing a vertical semi-sinusoidal exciting force applied at the pile top is obtained by employing the inverse Fourier transform. Utilizing these solutions, selected results for the velocity admittance curve and the reflected wave curve are presented for different heights of the soil plug to examine the influence of weld properties on the vertical dynamic response of prestressed pipe pile. The reasonableness of the theoretical model is verified by comparing the calculated results based on the presented solutions with measured results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The dynamic response of a mechanically stabilized earth wall to the passing of a high-speed train is modelled using the finite element method. A three-dimensional analysis is carried out, using a specific framework that allows performing the analysis with a moderate computational effort. In the first place, a so-called multiphase approach is used to take into account the reinforcing strips. The moving load is taken into account by performing the calculation in a mobile referential using the properties of symmetry of the train cars and a simplifying assumption of periodicity for the whole train. We also assume a steady state. A partial validation of the approach is obtained by means of a comparison with an analytical solution. The quick increase in displacements induced by the train passing when the speed comes close to the celerity of Rayleigh waves clearly appears in the results. The vertical displacements, vertical stresses in the backfill, tensile forces in the strips and the influence of the stiffness of the soil are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Several researchers have reported that the mean effective stress of unsaturated soils having a relatively high degree of saturation gradually decreases under fully undrained cyclic loading conditions, and such soils can be finally liquefied like saturated soils. This paper describes a series of simulations of fully undrained cyclic loading on unsaturated soils, conducted using an elastoplastic model for unsaturated soils. This model is a critical state soil model formulated using effective stress tensor for unsaturated soils, which incorporates the following concepts: (a) the volumetric movement of the state boundary surface containing the critical state line owing to the variation in the degree of saturation; (b) the soil water characteristic curve considering the effects of specific volume and hydraulic hysteresis; and (c) the subloading surface concept for considering the effect of density. Void air is assumed to be an ideal gas obeying Boyle's law. The proposed model is validated through comparisons with past results. The simulation results show that the proposed model properly describes the fully undrained cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils, such as liquefaction, compression, and an increase in the degree of saturation. Finally, the effects of the degree of saturation, void ratio, and confining pressure on the cyclic strength of unsaturated soils are described by the simulation results. The liquefaction resistance of unsaturated soils increases as the degree of saturation and the void ratio decrease, and as the confining pressure increases. Furthermore, the degree of saturation has a greater effect on the liquefaction resistance than the confining pressure and void ratio. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The concurrent multiscale method, which couples the discrete element method (DEM) for predicting the local micro-scale evolution of the soil particle skeleton with the finite element method (FEM) for estimating the remaining macro-scale continuum deformation, is a versatile tool for modeling the failure process of soil masses. This paper presents the separate edge coupling method, which is degenerated from the generalized bridging domain method and is good at eliminating spurious reflections that are induced by coupling models of different scales, to capture the granular behavior in the domain of interest and to coarsen the mesh to save computational cost in the remaining domain. Cundall non-viscous damping was used as numerical damping to dissipate the kinetic energy for simulating static failure problems. The proposed coupled DEM–FEM scheme was adopted to model the wave propagation in a 1D steel bar, a soil slope because of the effect of a shallow foundation and a plane-strain cone penetration test (CPT). The numerical results show that the separate edge coupling method is effective when it is adopted for a problem with Cundall non-viscous damping; it qualitatively reproduces the failure process of the soil masses and is consistent with the full micro-scale discrete element model. Stress discontinuity is found in the coupling domain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An analytical solution is obtained for 2-D steady Darcian flow under and through a cutoff wall partially obstructing a homogeneous isotropic foundation of a dam. The wall is leaky; that is, flow across it depends on the ratio of hydraulic conductivity of the wall and the wall thickness that results in the third-type (Robin) boundary condition along the wall, as compared with the Terzaghi problem for an impermeable wall. The Laplace equation for the hydraulic head is meshlessly solved in a non-standard flow tube. A Fredholm equation of the second kind is obtained for the intensity of leakage across the wall. The equation is tackled numerically, by adjusted successive iterations. Flow characteristics (total Darcian discharge and its components through the wall and the window between the wall top and horizontal bedrock, stream function, head distribution, and Darcian velocity along the wall and tailwater bed) are obtained for various conductivity ratios, head drops across the structure, thicknesses of the foundation, and the degree of its blockage by the wall. Comparisons with the Terzaghi limit of an impermeable wall show that for common wall materials and thicknesses, the leakage may constitute tens of percent of the discharge under the dam. The through-flow hydraulic gradients on a vertical wall face (Robin's boundary condition) as well as the exit gradients along a horizontal tailwater boundary (Dirichlet's boundary condition) acting for decades have deleterious impacts on dam stability because of potential heaving, piping, and mechanical–chemical suffusion. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No abstract is available for this article.

]]>An exact steady-state closed-form solution is presented for coupled flow and deformation of an axisymmetric isotropic homogeneous fluid-saturated poroelastic layer with a finite radius due to a point sink. The hydromechanical behavior of the poroelastic layer is governed by Biot's consolidation theory. Boundary conditions on the lateral surface are specifically chosen to match the appropriate finite Hankel transforms and simplify the transforms of the governing equations. Ordinary differential equations in the transformed domain are solved, and then the analytical solutions in the physical space for the pore pressure and the displacements are finally obtained by using finite Hankel inversions. The analytical solutions at some special locations such as the top and bottom surfaces, lateral surface, and the symmetrical axis are given and analyzed. And a case study for the consolidation of a water-saturated soft clay layer due to pumping is conducted. The analytical solution is verified against the finite element solution. Meanwhile, an analysis of coupled hydromechanical behavior is carried out herein. The presented analytical solution is an exact solution to the practical poroelastic problem within an axisymmetric finite layer. It can provide us a better understanding of the poroelastic behavior of the finite layer due to fluid extraction. Besides, it can be applied to calibrate numerical schemes of axisymmetric poroelasticity within finite domains. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Numerical analysis of transient seepage in unbounded domains with unsteady boundary conditions requires a more sophisticated artificial boundary approach to deal with the infinite character of the domain. To that end, a local artificial boundary is established by simplifying a global artificial boundary. The global artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) at the truncated boundary are derived from analytical solutions for one-dimensional axisymmetric diffusion problems. By applying Laplace transforms and introducing some specially defined auxiliary variables, the global ABCs are simplified to local ABCs to significantly enhance the computational efficiency. The proposed local ABCs are implemented in a finite element computer program so that the solutions to various seepage problems can be calculated. The proposed approach is first verified by the computation of a one-dimensional radial flow problem and then tentatively applied to more general two-dimensional cylindrical problems and planar problems. The solutions obtained using the local ABCs are compared with those obtained using a large element mesh and using a previously proposed local boundary. This comparison demonstrates the satisfactory performance and obvious superiority of the newly established boundary to the other local boundary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, the dynamic response of an infinite beam resting on a Pasternak foundation and subjected to arbitrary dynamic loads is developed in the form of analytical solution. The beam responses investigated are deflection, velocity, acceleration, bending moment, and shear force. The mechanical resistance of the Pasternak foundation is modeled using two parameters, that is, one accounts for soil resistance due to compressive strains in the soil and the other accounts for the resistance due to shear strains. Because the Winkler model only represents the compressive resistance of soil, comparatively, the Pasternak model is more realistic to consider shear interactions between the soil springs. The governing equation of the beam is simplified into an algebraic equation by employing integration transforms, so that the analytical solution for the dynamic response of the beam can be obtained conveniently in the frequency domain. Both inverse Laplace and inverse Fourier transforms combined with convolution theorem are applied to convert the solution into the time domain. The solutions for several special cases, such as harmonic line loads, moving line loads, and travelling loads are also discussed and numerical examples are conducted to investigate the influence of the shear modulus of foundation on the beam responses. The proposed solutions can be an effective tool for practitioners. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The paper presents a synthesis of analytical modeling and computational simulations of the intrinsic permeability of microcracks, embedded in porous materials taking into account the interaction of the fluid flow in the microcrack with the surrounding porous material. In the first part of the paper, using the DARCY, STOKES, BRINKMAN, and the BEAVERS–JOSEPH approximations, we derive the intrinsic permeability of a plain non-rough microcrack in terms of the microcrack geometry and the permeability of the porous material surrounding the microcrack. In the second part of the paper, the intrinsic permeability of a microcrack is determined by means of computational simulations using the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method with partial bounceback conditions. The comparison of predictions from the analytical model and the numerical simulations show an excellent agreement. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.