Geotechnical experiments show that Lode angle-dependent constitutive formulations are appropriate to describe the failure of geomaterials. In the present study, we have adopted one such class of failure criteria along with a versatile constitutive relationship to theoretically analyze the effects of Lode angle on localized shear deformation or shear band formation in loose sand for both drained and undrained conditions. We determine the variation in the possible stress states for shear localization due to the introduction of Lode angle by considering the localized deformation as a bifurcation problem. Further, similar bifurcation analysis is performed for the stress states along a specific loading path, namely, plane strain compression at the constitutive level. In addition, the plane strain compression tests have been simulated as a boundary value finite element problem to see how Lode angle affects the post-localization response. Results show that the inclusion of a Lode angle parameter within the failure criterion has considerable effects on the onset, plastic strain, and propagation of shear localization in loose sand specimens. For drained condition, we notice early inception of shear localization and multiple band formation when the Lode angle-dependent failure criterion is used. Undrained localization characteristics, however, found to be independent of Lode angle consideration.

Conventional methods for calculation of passive earth pressure were mainly based on the assumptions of the linear Mohr-Coulomb yield condition and plane strain failure mechanism. However, both theoretical and experimental studies have shown that such assumptions are not satisfied in some geotechnical projects. Herein, a novel method incorporating a kinematically admissible 3-dimensional (3D) rotational failure mechanism and the nonlinear power-law yield criterion is proposed to compute the passive earth pressure acting on the inclined retaining walls. Instead of using the nonlinear yield criterion directly, a straight line tangential to the nonlinear yield curve is employed to represent the strength of soils, and therefore, the nonlinear problem is transformed into the traditional linear problem. The 3D failure mechanism is generated through rotating a circle defined by 2 log-spirals, and a plane strain block is inserted into the mechanism to consider the retaining walls with different widths. Earthquake effects are taken into account by using quasi-static representation, and the horizontal seismic coefficient concept is adopted for the estimation of passive earth pressure under seismic conditions. An analytical expression about the 3D passive earth pressure is educed by means of the upper bound theorem of limit analysis. Numerical results for different practical parameters are obtained from an optimization scheme where the minimum of passive earth pressure is sought. Compared with available 2-dimensional and 3D solutions, the proposed method is validated. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of different parameters on the 3D static and seismic passive earth pressure.

An approximate analytical solution is presented for the coupled seepage and deformation problem of unsaturated soils. Because of the matric suction dependence of both saturation and permeability coefficient, the coupled governing equations are strongly nonlinear. To obtain an analytical solution, these coupled governing equations are linearized and analytically solved for a specified saturation using the eigenfunction method. Then, the obtained analytical solutions are extended to the entire saturation range. Comparison between the current solution and the previous theoretical solution indicates that the proposed solution yields excellent results. Due to its analytical nature, the proposed procedure can be effectively used to obtain the solution of the coupled seepage and deformation of unsaturated soils.

Gas hydrate-bearing sediments (GHBSs) have been considered as a potential energy resource. In this paper, the mechanical properties of GHBS are firstly investigated by the integrated test apparatus for synthesis of GHBS using silty sand as skeleton. Triaxial tests indicate an obvious transition of stress-strain relationship from strain hardening under low hydrate saturation and strain softening under high hydrate saturation. The hypoplastic models coupled with Drucker-Prager criterion and the Mohr-Coulomb criterion are proposed to analyze the stress-strain relationship of GHBS with considering the effective porosity because of the hydrate filling in the pores of GHBS. The strain hardening and softening behaviors are well predicted with less material parameters compared with the classical models. Compared with the test results, the proposed hypoplastic models are verified to be capable of capturing the salient features of the mechanical behaviors of GHBS under the conditions of little temperature change and no hydrate dissociation.

Yield and plastic potential surfaces are often affected by problems related to convexity. One such problem is encountered when the yield surface that bounds the elastic domain is itself convex; however, convexity is lost when the surface expands to pass through stress points outside the current elastic domain. In this paper, a technique is proposed, which effectively corrects this problem by providing linear homothetic expansion with respect to the centre of the yield surface. A very compact implicit integration scheme is also presented, which is of general applicability for isotropic constitutive models, provided that their yield and plastic potential functions are based on a separate mathematical definition of the meridional and deviatoric sections and that stress invariants are adopted as mechanical quantities. The elastic predictor-plastic corrector algorithm is based on the solution of a system of 2 equations in 2 unknowns only. This further reduces to a single equation and unknown in the case of yield and plastic potential surfaces with a linear meridional section. The effectiveness of the proposed convexification technique and the efficiency and stability of the integration scheme are investigated by running numerical analyses of a notoriously demanding boundary value problem.

The behavior of a pile group is solved using the finite element method, and the fundamental solution of saturated multilayered soils with anisotropic permeability is obtained by the analytical layer element method. Based on the supposition of no slip occurring at the pile-soil interface, the governing equations of the interaction between the pile group and the soils due to a point sink are established in the Laplace-Hankel transformed domain by considering the pile-soil compatibility condition. Numerical results are presented to study the effect of point sink pumping, the properties of soils, and the geometries of piles on the behavior of the pile group.

The construction of twin tunnels at shallow depth has become increasingly common in urban areas. In general, twin tunnels are usually near each other, in which the interaction between tunnels is too significant to be ignored on their stability. The equivalent arbitrarily distributed loads imposed on ground surface were considered in this study, and a new analytical approach was provided to efficiently predict the elastic stresses and displacements around the twin tunnels. The interaction between 2 tunnels of different radii with various arrangements was taken into account in the analysis. We used the Schwartz alternating method in this study to reduce the twin-tunnel problem to a series of problems where only 1 tunnel was contained in half-plane. The convergent and highly accurate analytical solutions were achieved by superposing the solutions of the reduced single-tunnel problems. The analytical solutions were then verified by the good agreement between analytical and numerical results. Furthermore, by the comparison on initial plastic zone and surface settlement between analytical solution and numerical/measured results of elastoplastic cases, it was proven that the analytical solution can accurately predict the initial plastic zone and its propagation direction and can qualitatively provide the reliable ground settlements. A parametric study was finally performed to investigate the influence of locations of surcharge load and the tunnel arrangement on the ground stresses and displacements. The new solution proposed in this study provides an insight into the interaction of shallow twin tunnels under surcharge loads, and it can be used as an alternative approach for the preliminary design of future shallow tunnels excavated in rock or medium/stiff clay.

In recent years, a new technique of ground improvement, which involves the combined use of impervious column and vertical drains, has been proposed and utilized in many field projects to accelerate consolidation and increase bearing capacity of soft soil ground. To cover the possible distribution patterns of impervious columns and vertical drains, 2 analytical models, including Model A with outward flow and Model B with inward flow within the soils, are proposed to predict the consolidation of combined composite ground by considering the following factors: (1) disturbance effects of both impervious columns and vertical drains, (2) the well resistance of vertical drains, and (3) time-variant loadings. The average degrees of consolidation predicted by the proposed analytical models are compared with several existing solutions and then against the measured data in the literature. The consolidation behavior of a combined composite ground is investigated by the proposed analytical solutions. The results show that the combined use of impervious columns and vertical drains can remarkably accelerate the consolidation rate of soft soils compared with the single use of either of them. The average degrees of consolidation predicted by both analytical models agree well with the measured data. Compared with Model B, Model A usually predicts a faster consolidation rate because of a shorter drainage path. Many factors can influence consolidation behavior of combined composite ground, such as loading scheme, distribution patterns and the disturbance effects of impervious columns and vertical drains, and compression modulus ratio of impervious column to soil.

Recently constructed concrete-faced rockfill dams (CFRDs) often use soft inter-slab joints to prevent axial compression-induced extrusion damage in the concrete face. Due to the complexity of the multibody contact and the lack of information on the actual behavior of soft joints, it is highly challenging to numerically assess the effect of soft joints in CFRDs. In this paper, we present a numerical approach for the three-dimensional modeling of CFRDs with hard and soft joints. A dual mortar finite element method with Lagrange multiplier is developed to treat the multibody contact in hard joints with impenetrability condition. The soft joint slab-filler-slab contact system is modeled using an equivalent contact interface approach, where the soft contact constraints are imposed using a perturbed Lagrange formulation. Through a series of laboratory tests, the mechanical behavior of soft joint is investigated. An extrusion model for the soft joint is presented and implemented in the dual mortar finite element method. The proposed numerical method is applied to the three-dimensional analysis of Tianshengqiao-1 CFRD. Despite the complex multibody contact and strong material and geometry nonlinearities in the CFRD, the proposed method is stable and capable of capturing salient characteristics of the CFRD. Numerical results show that in Tianshengqiao-1, the employment of soft joints can effectively reduce the axial compression stress, thus greatly alleviating the risk of extrusion damage in the concrete face.

The rock around tunnels used for gas storage is subject to high pressures, reaching 30 MPa in the case of compressed air energy storage. Uplift failure of the overlaying rock mass up to the surface represents the main hazard scenario in such cases. The present paper investigates this problem by using the upper bound theorem of limit analysis assuming a continuum rock mass model obeying the Mohr Coulomb failure criterion with tension cut-off. Tools of the calculus of variations are used to assess the geometry of the failure surface. The effects of geometrical and geotechnical parameters on uplift pressure are analyzed systematically. Charts are then provided, which enable a quick estimation of the upper bound of uplift pressure across a wide range of geotechnical and geometrical conditions.

Fluid-driven fractures of brittle rock is simulated via a dual-graph lattice model. The new discrete hydromechanical model incorporates a two-way coupling mechanism between the discrete element model and the flow network. By adopting an operator-split algorithm, the coupling model is able to replicate the transient poroelasticity coupling mechanism and the resultant Mandel-Cryer hydromechanical coupling effect in a discrete mechanics framework. As crack propagation, coalescence and branching are all path-dependent and irreversible processes, capturing this transient coupling effect is important for capturing the essence of the fluid-driven fracture in simulations. Injection simulations indicate that the onset and propagation of fractures is highly sensitive to the ratio between the injection rate and the effective permeability. Furthermore, we show that in a permeable rock, the borehole breakdown pressure, the pressure at which fractures start to grow from the borehole, depends on both the given ratio between injection rate and permeability and the Biot coefficient.

The plane strain behavior of particulate mixtures containing soluble particles was investigated by conducting both laboratory tests and numerical analysis. To perform the laboratory experiments, soluble mixtures were prepared using photoelastic disks and ice disks with diameters in the ratios (D_{ice disk}/D_{photoelastic disk}) of 0.5 and 0.7, and the evolution of the force chain and pore structure was monitored during the dissolution of the ice disks. Subsequently, numerical analysis was conducted by using the 2-dimensional discrete element method for the soluble mixtures, and it was compared with the experimental results. Additionally, parametric studies were implemented by varying the particle size ratios between the soluble and non-soluble particles and the volumetric fraction of the soluble particles. The results of the laboratory experiments and numerical analysis demonstrate that (1) after the dissolution of the soluble particles, the pore fabric of the specimens changed, resulting in a force chain changes, local void increases, and coordination number decreases; (2) the effects of soluble particles on the macro-behaviors of the mixtures could be divided into 3 zones based on the particle size ratios between the soluble and non-soluble particles and volumetric fraction of soluble particles. These zones were as follows: (Zone 1)—with a small total soluble volume, slight decrease in the in situ lateral pressure (K_{0}), and minor increase in the hydraulic conductivity (*k*); (Zone 2)—with a moderate soluble particle; the dissolution generated a honey-comb particle structure; (Zone 3)—the total soluble volume was very large, and the high volumetric fraction of the dissolving particle collapsed the pore structure, decreasing in the in situ lateral pressure (K_{0}) but increasing the hydraulic conductivity (*k*). The horizontal stress returned to almost the original level, and the internal arching formation increased significantly with the hydraulic conductivity (*k*)*.*

No abstract is available for this article.

]]>The impact of turbulent flow on plane strain fluid-driven crack propagation is an important but still poorly understood consideration in hydraulic fracture modeling. The changes that hydraulic fracturing has experienced over the past decade, especially in the area of fracturing fluids, have played a major role in the transition of the typical fluid regime from laminar to turbulent flow. Motivated by the increasing preponderance of high-rate, water-driven hydraulic fractures with high Reynolds number, we present a semianalytical solution for the propagation of a plane strain hydraulic fracture driven by a turbulent fluid in an impermeable formation. The formulation uses a power law relationship between the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor and the scale of the fracture roughness, where one specific manifestation of this generalized friction factor is the classical Gauckler-Manning-Strickler approximation for turbulent flow in a rough-walled channel. Conservation of mass, elasticity, and crack propagation are also solved simultaneously. We obtain a semianalytical solution using an orthogonal polynomial series. An approximate closed-form solution is enabled by a choice of orthogonal polynomials embedding the near-tip asymptotic behavior and thus giving very rapid convergence; a precise solution is obtained with 2 terms of the series. By comparison with numerical simulations, we show that the transition region between the laminar and turbulent regimes can be relatively small so that full solutions can often be well approximated by either a fully laminar or fully turbulent solution.

This paper proposes a new approach for the assessment of the dynamic response of continuously supported infinite beams under high-speed moving loads. A change in the representation of equations of motion in the dynamics of discrete structures is proposed to obtain an improved accuracy of the numerical integration in the time domain. The proposed numerical method called the “periodic configuration update” or “PCU method” is applied to solve the problem of a vertical moving harmonic load on an infinite classical Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a continuous viscoelastic foundation. This study shows the superiority of the proposed method in comparison with other methods presented in the literature that suffer from the material time derivative, i.e., convective terms, that arises from the Galilean transformation. To confront this numerical problem, the PCU method retains the principle of the spatial follow of loads while zeroing the relative velocity with the traversed beam via a step-by-step adaptive integration of the equation of structural dynamics. The dynamic load is modeled with high theoretical velocities that can reach the critical velocity of the studied beam with different angular frequencies belonging to moderate frequency range. A parametric study is carried out to analyze the influence of key parameters on the convergence. The obtained results show a high efficiency of the PCU method for solving these types of problems relative to the dynamics of high speed trains/tracks.

The dynamic problem of a transversely isotropic multilayered medium is reducible to quasi-static problem by introducing a moving system that travels synchronously with the load. Based on the governing equations in the moving system, the ordinary differential equations in the Fourier transformed domain are deduced. An extended precise integration method is adopted to solve the ordinary differential equations, and the solution in the physical domain is recovered by the inverse Fourier transform. Numerical examples are performed to verify the accuracy of the presented method and to analyze the influence of material properties and the load characteristic.

Prediction of time-dependent groundwater inflow into a shield tunnel is a significant task facing engineers. Published literature shows that there is no available method with which to predict time-dependent groundwater inflow into a tunnel. This paper presents a prediction approach for time-dependent groundwater inflow into a tunnel in both anisotropic and isotropic confined aquifers. The proposed solution can predict groundwater inrush from the tunnel cutting face. To obtain the time-dependent groundwater flow quantity, the concept of a horizontal-well pumping test based on the theory of a point source is adopted. Multiple factors, eg, drawdown, thickness of aquifer, conductivities, and specific storage, are taken into account. Both groundwater inflow to the cross section of a tunnel face in the *y*-*z* plane and total tunnel inflow are obtained. Based on the proposed approach, the time-dependent groundwater inflow to a tunnel can be classified as either a uniform or non-uniform flow. The proposed approach is applied to analyse groundwater inflow of 2 field cases: (1) Metro line No. 7, Guangzhou City and (2) an underground tunnel in Huizhou, Guangdong Province. Results show that the proposed method can predict the measured values, and drawdown-related curves are also derived. In addition, the calculated results also reveal that the effect of hydraulic conductivity *k*_{z} on the total groundwater inflow differs from that of hydraulic conductivities *k*_{x} and *k*_{y} and the thickness of the aquifer.

This paper studies dynamic crack propagation by employing the distinct lattice spring model (DLSM) and 3-dimensional (3D) printing technique. A damage-plasticity model was developed and implemented in a 2D DLSM. Applicability of the damage-plasticity DLSM was verified against analytical elastic solutions and experimental results for crack propagation. As a physical analogy, dynamic fracturing tests were conducted on 3D printed specimens using the split Hopkinson pressure bar. The dynamic stress intensity factors were recorded, and crack paths were captured by a high-speed camera. A parametric study was conducted to find the influences of the parameters on cracking behaviors, including initial and peak fracture toughness, crack speed, and crack patterns. Finally, selection of parameters for the damage-plasticity model was determined through the comparison of numerical predictions and the experimentally observed cracking features.

The mechanical response of an assembly of particles depends on the applied boundary conditions. Robust calibration of numerical discrete systems to laboratory results is also a primary step in many studies of granular materials. In this study, a new membrane model was developed for simulating axisymmetric element tests. This membrane model uses a simple algorithm of an array of independently controlled walls and is computationally efficient. The effect of boundary flexibility on the system response was investigated by simulating a series of triaxial tests on dense and loose specimens. At the specimen scale, differences in shear strength and volume change of specimens were observed. It was shown that localization pattern depends on the applied boundary conditions. At the particle scale, particle-membrane contact forces, coordination number, local void ratio, and anisotropy of fabric were all affected by the boundary flexibility.