The saddest aspect of life right now is that science gathers knowledge faster than society gathers wisdom. - Isaac Asimov, scientist and writer (1920-1992)

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

Filing a criminal law complaint to the Romanian authorities (New Romanian Criminal Procedure Code of Justice)

The new Romanian Criminal Justice Codes (Feb 2014) brought new rules regarding filing a criminal law complaint to the Romanian authorities as well as rules for withdrawing the complaint. Here his a translation of the main provisions under the new code for review purposes only. Please consult a lawyer prior to actually drafting and filing such a complaint under the Romanian law.

Sunday, February 9, 2014

Romanian Computer Crime provisions in the new Criminal Code (English Translation)

New cybercrime laws in Romania: As promised in the previous article, we attempt a raw translation into the English language of the provisions  regarding computer crimes and computer related crimes from the new Romanian Criminal Justice Code. DISCLAIMER: This is an unofficial translation intended purely for review purposes and not to be used directly in a court of law.

Saturday, February 8, 2014

Updated Romanian Computer Crime Laws

Since February 1st 2014, Romania has a new Criminal Code setting the Criminal Justice on new basis. The new code integrates in a single text all the offences and crimes related to computer systems, computer data, electronic payment methods and much more that were either spread across various laws or were not in existence until now.  Here are, for reference, in short, the main titles and provision numbers in the new Romanian Criminal Code regarding computer crimes.

Saturday, October 16, 2010

Internet Dating & Marriage Scams - how to avoid them

In the last four years I have seen numerous cases of this already classical Internet scam, obviously after they took place and there was little or nothing to do to reverse the financial damage on the victims. Basically, a Western guy meets an Eastern woman on Internet chat or dating services, they develop a relationship over the Internet and in some cases even meeting in real life, then he sends her large amounts of money and the girl eventually disappears. Are there chances of legal action success? What precautions should be taken?

Monday, October 4, 2010

Cyber-terrorism from fiction to reality

While preparing my two lectures for the Advanced NATO seminar that took place in Kiev, Ukraine, last week (sep 26 to 29, 2010) and had as topic "Cyber-Terrorism Prevention & Counteraction" - I had the occasion to go again through many books, reports and related documents on Cyber-Terrorism. Below are some key elements of the phenomenon, as a short introduction to this topic.

Saturday, July 17, 2010

Computer crime in Romania - press releases overview

Since we've just passed in the second half of year 2010 I have re-read for you the press release issued by the Romanian Directorate on Investigating Organized Crime and Terrorism (DIICOT) - the law enforcement body which also investigates computer related crimes in Romania.
I have made a selection of all press-releases for cybercrime cases in the first half of 2010 year in an attempt to analyze the data with respect to types of cybercrime most often encountered, areas covered, etc.

Protect your busines from computer related risks

Two different conversations with the visitors of my blog had the same theme: how can I protect my business from the computer and internet related risks?. This article is based on a situation I frequently met here in Romania but which can be generally applicable in other countries too:

I am not talking about security auditing the business, investing in security technology and such, but instead I will refer here to some simple but important measures any company should take in protecting their business. It's about legal protection.

Sunday, July 11, 2010

Is email accepted as evidence in romanian courts?

I receive this question very often and one of the answers is: Yes, you can use email in a Romanian court as evidence, in most of the cases but, only if you bring it in court in a proper manner.

Monday, June 28, 2010

Prevention: How can I stay away from SPAM?

On the romanian language blog related to prevention of computer crime and dedicated to non-technical users, I have added a new practical advice in an attempt to answer questions from the readers asking how to keep their personal email addresses away from receiving SPAM.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Digital photos as evidence in Romanian courts

What should I do in order to use digital photos as evidence in court? Do Romanian courts accept photos from a digital camera? Do I have to turn in my camera or it's enough that I print the photos?..and so on... these are just a few questions I frequently receive from people concerning the digital photos as electronic evidence in courts in Romania.

Friday, January 29, 2010

Fingerprints on the Internet?

How unique and identifiable are we while surfing the Internet from the silence of our home? Do we leave behind traces that through which we can be recognized?

Our Browsers, while useful tools for gathering information, communicate with the web-servers we visit, exchanging a plethora of information, giving to the server especially information about our computer, especially the configuration of the  browser and it's helper applications (the plug-ins, installed fonts, video and audio players, etc) that are installed.

The browsers do this so that the server has the possibility to format and adapt the pages that it will deliver to us so that they are displayed correctly. But usually, the server keeps this information after we leave.

Because all these fonts and plug-ins vary from computer to computer, all this data and information, although anonymous while it's not coupled with the IP address, gathered and analyzed create a configuration fingerprint almost unique, that we leave behind while surfing. Gathering this information from several servers, it's easy to create and follow a path we make on the internet and process and store and identify us while returning to a server. Like a fingerprint.

You can test how unique is your browser by visiting project Panopticlick...

Sunday, August 2, 2009

Intro: Computer crimes and the legal system

The last 30 years have seen inimaginable technical advances in the fields of computers and communication technology. The development of Internet has radically transformed mankind, allowing almost instant communication and long distance cooperation between individuals, companies, institutions and governments. Computers and Internet have become part of the daily work of bilions of individuals.

More, expansion of businesses on the Internet and through the Internet, online shopping and Internet payment methods has lead to appearance and development of a whole new economic sector who's existence and activity depends solely on the stability of the Internet climate.

But the benefits of this new type of interaction and cooperation based on the Information Technology and the world-wide-web, have also brought new types of anti-social and criminal activities and threats who pose new and yet to be solved problems to the national and regional legal systems.

The new medium is forcing a response from the legal systems that cannot anymore be done solely through classical methods of investigation and prosecution, but through new and innovative ways.

We are talking here about crimes that generally fit into the cybercrime or computer related crimes category - a type of criminal activities that causes significant losses worldwide - and which have their own special characteristics different from those of the classical crimes, requiring a fast response and evolution of the national legal systems, as well as new international cooperation mechanisms. Some of these characteristics are:
  • technical aspects and specific technical language involved in proving these crimes and bringing them to justice - law enforcement agencies and courts have to deal with countless technical aspects and a quite strong language barrier.
  • electronic evidence is volatile - computer and network data are extremely volatile, being easy to miss or compromise, thus endangering the investigations and requiring the capability of fast response from the law enforcement bodies.
  • cross-border nature of computer crime - a computer crime can be initiated from a country, use facilities from other countries and have victims in several other countries or continents - bringing them to justice require very good cooperation between law enforcement agencies world-wide and adequate procedures and international cooperation instruments.
  • large numbers of computer related crimes possible at a certain moment - in some cases law enforcement bodies have to limit their investigations only to cases which result in a certain level of losses.
  • difficulty of identifying the criminals beyond any doubt  - computers are everywhere, in every office and every household, as well as the public access terminals and hotspots thus a large number of individuals accessing the same computer makes tying the crime to a certain person a dificult task.
  • lack of education of the general public regarding minimal technical measures of self-protection and conduct when accessing the Internet.
All these characteristics and many others, pose significant challenges to legal systems worldwide.

Why ?

This is the English language version of the a legal blog initially intended for the Romanian general public and Romanian specialists involved in fight against cybercrime. This specific version will contain translations of some of the legal articles published in Romanian, as well as specific articles in English.

For more information about us please visit the About Us page.
You can also contact us at the following address: contact [AT] criminalitate dot info.