Asian Science Citation Index https://www.scialert.net/asci Asian Science Citation Index en-us Asian Science Citation Index Sun, 19 Aug 2018 18:11:57 +0200 Sun, 19 Aug 2018 18:14:14 +0200 RssPublisher 0.2.0 beta ../images/logo.gif ASCI https://scialert.net/asci 37 155 Asian Science Citation Index <![CDATA[Psychiatric Residents' Self-Assessment of Teaching Knowledge and Skills Following a Brief "Psychiatric Residents-as-Teachers" Course: A Pilot Study]]> OBJECTIVE: Resident physicians have an important role in medical student teaching. There has been limited curriculum development in this area for general psychiatric residents. A 4-hour workshop for PGY-2 psychiatric residents was designed and implemented to improve residents&rsquo; self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum and core teaching skills. METHODS: Residents completed pre- and postcourse self-assessments of their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values about teaching. Descriptive statistics were obtained on pre- and postcourse data and were analyzed using t tests assuming unequal variance. RESULTS: Following course participation, there was statistically significant improvement in residents&rsquo; self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum (p&le;0.001), their self-assessment regarding perception of peers&rsquo; view of their teaching ability (p&le;0.02), and their perceived knowledge of various teaching methods (p&le;0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a brief workshop may enhance psychiatric residents&rsquo; self-assessment of teaching knowledge and skills.

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2010-06-01
<![CDATA[Effect of contamination of pasture with military explosives on grazing behaviour in shee]]> 2011-03-01 <![CDATA[Cleaning heavy metal contaminated soil with soluble humic substances instead of synthetic polycarboxylic acids]]> 2011-06-01 <![CDATA[Marginal stability analysis on salt-fingers convection with parabolic temperature and salinity profiles]]> ), the critical wave number (ac) and the couple disturbed local depth under the stationary stability analysis are also shown in this work. From the result of overstability analysis, it shows that oscillatory motion of salt-fingers convection will be triggered under a certain definite characteristic frequency. In overstability, it provoke restoring forces so strong as to overshoot the corresponding position on the other side of equilibrium for case of coupled disturbance in the upper layer of ocean.]]> 2009-03-01 <![CDATA[Therapeutic effect of artemisinin on lupus nephritis mice and its mechanisms]]> In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of artemisinin (Art) on lupus nephritis mice and its mechanisms by comparing the differences between lupus nephritis (LN) mice given Art and control mice in molecular biology, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology. The results showed that Art could remarkably relieve the symptoms, decrease the level of urine protein/24 h, and alleviate pathological renal lesions. The differences among the four groups in the expression of the NF-Bp65 protein, nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activity, and the expression of transforming growth factor-&beta;1 (TGF-&beta;1) mRNA in renal tissue suggested that Art can lower the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibit the expression of the NF-Bp65 protein and NF-B and TGF-&beta;1 mRNA in the renal tissues of LN mice. These results proved that it is reliable and effective to use Art to treat LN mice, and its therapeutic mechanisms should closely be related to the fact that Art can obviously decrease the serum levels of TNF- and IL-6 and down-regulate the expression of the NF-Bp65 protein and NF-B and TGF-&beta;1 mRNA in renal tissues.

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2010-12-01
<![CDATA[Regulation of material properties in electrospun scaffolds: Role of cross-linking and fiber tertiary structure]]> 2009-01-01 <![CDATA[Peer substance involvement modifies genetic influences on regular substance involvement in young women]]> Aims Peer substance involvement (PSI) is a robust correlate of adolescent substance use. A small number of genetically informative studies suggest that shared genetic and environmental factors contribute to this association. We examine mechanisms by which PSI influences the etiology of regular substance involvement (RSI), particularly in women. Design Population-based cohort study of twin women from the US Midwest. Participants 2176 twin women. Measurements To examine the relationship between self-reported PSI during adolescence and a composite RSI representing regular tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use during young adulthood, using genetically informative correlation, moderation and joint correlation-moderation models. Findings There was evidence for a significant additive genetic X environment interaction. PSI was moderately heritable (h2=0.25). Genetic, shared and non-shared influences on RSI overlapped with influences on PSI (genetic correlation of 0.43). Even after controlling for these shared genetic influences, RSI was more heritable in those reporting greater PSI. Conclusions While young women may select peers based on certain dispositional traits (e.g. permissiveness towards substance use), the social milieu constructed by PSI does modify the architecture of increased RSI in those individuals with increasing levels of PSI being associated with stronger expression of heritable influences.]]> 2010-10-01 <![CDATA[Use of smoking reduction strategies among U.S. tobacco quitlines]]> Introduction: Tobacco quitlines (QLs) are efficacious and have assisted many smokers in achieving tobacco abstinence. However, most smokers are not able to achieve tobacco abstinence with QL services. QL counseling interventions for smokers who do not quit on their target quit date (TQD) and decline to set a new TQD after missing their TQD have not been systematically evaluated. Methods: A telephone survey of tobacco QLs in the United States (US) was conducted to examine systematic approaches used with smokers who do not quit on their TQD and decline to set a new TQD. Tobacco QLs service providers were identified through the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). Results: Fourteen service providers managing QLs of all 50 US states were identified and completed the voluntary survey. All providers recommended setting a new quit TQD if smokers did not achieve smoking cessation by their initial TQD. Six percent of US state QLs used brief motivational interviewing utilizing the &#147;5R&#146;s&#148; (relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, repetition). However, 90% of QLs had intervention protocols emphasizing smoking rate reduction. Conclusion: Although some US QLs utilized the &#147;5Rs,&#148; the majority provided smoking reduction interventions for smokers not achieving tobacco cessation by their initial TQD and declining to set a new TQD. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of smoking rate reduction methods implemented through QLs for increasing smoking abstinence rates.]]> 2012-04-01 <![CDATA[A Synthesis of New Perspectives on Virtual HRD]]> The Problem A number of new perspectives of virtual human resource development (VHRD) have been provided in this issue of Advances in Developing Human Resources (ADHR) that warrant further discussion. As VHRD is still a nascent area of inquiry in HRD, professionals need more explanatory examples and solutions to consider for determining their own role in working with people and technology.

The Solution This article offers a synthesis of key constructs of VHRD from the articles in this special issue. Also, it provides a discussion around two different modes of technology development (TD) needed by HRD professionals in the contemporary technology-enabled environment afforded by VHRD. And, the integration of TD in addition to career development, training and development, and organization development is essential to the future of HRD and is discussed herein.

The Stakeholders This article targets primarily practitioners interested in VHRD interventions and processes. It encourages the reader to examine the commonalities across the articles in this issue of ADHR and also to consider the new skills required for HRD professionals when seeking to align organizational mission with all levels of the organization.]]> 2014-03-01 <![CDATA[Generic combinatorial rigidity of periodic frameworks]]> planar periodic frameworks. The characterization is a true analogue of the Maxwell&#150;Laman Theorem from rigidity theory: it is stated in terms of a finite combinatorial object and the conditions are checkable by polynomial time combinatorial algorithms.

To prove our rigidity theorem we introduce and develop periodic direction networks and Z2-graded-sparse colored graphs.]]> 2013-01-01 <![CDATA[The interface between general and forensic psychiatry: the present day]]> 2014-05-01 <![CDATA[Quasi-biennial oscillation signals in outgoing long-wave radiation of the equator]]> 2010-11-01 <![CDATA[Incidence of ischaemic stroke according to income level among older people: the 3C study]]> Background: stroke has been shown to follow a social gradient with incidence rising as socioeconomic status decreases.

Objective: to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and ischaemic stroke risk amongst older people.

Setting: the Cities of Bordeaux, Dijon and Montpellier in France.

Subjects and methods: nine thousand and two hundred and ninety-four non-institutionalised persons aged 65 years or more followed for 6 years.

Results: the distribution of cardiovascular risks factors was consistent with the classical finding of more favourable risk profiles among the advantaged socioeconomic groups. One hundred and thirty-six individuals developed a first ever ischaemic stroke (incidence rate: 3.2 per 1,000 py (person-years), 95% CI 2.7&ndash;3.8). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of ischaemic stroke increased with increasing level of income (from 2.4 to 4.1 per 1,000 py, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.04). In the multivariable analysis adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, the higher income group displayed a 80% increased risk of ischaemic stroke compared with less wealthy participants (hazards ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.20&ndash;2.61).

Conclusions: in this community-based sample of older individuals, a higher level of household income was associated with a higher risk of ischaemic stroke, a reversal of the social gradient usually reported in younger age groups. Selective survival is one of the potential explanations for this unexpected finding.

]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Water access, farm productivity, and farm household income: Sri Lanka&#146;s Kirindi Oya irrigation system]]> 2014-05-01 <![CDATA[Growth Performances of Rabbits in Farms in Southern Benin]]> 2017-03-01 <![CDATA[Seed Priming of Winter Annual Cover Crops Improves Germination and Emergence]]> Secale cereale L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), and oriental mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A logistic function modeled response was used to quantify onset of germination, time to 50% germination (t50), maximum germination rate, final germination percentage (K), seedling emergence, and establishment in laboratory germination paper and soil core assays. Rye seed germinated rapidly regardless of priming treatment. Under the optimum environmental conditions of a laboratory germination assay, the smallest seeded cover crop, perennial ryegrass, was the only species to show a final germination response that was higher in primed (86%) than untreated seed (78%). However, seed germination rates of three species were influenced by priming: 50% germination was reached 8, 6, and 9 h earlier in hairy vetch, mustard, and perennial ryegrass, respectively. Compacted soil assays showed that priming (24 h) improved seedling emergence by 36% and 57% for hairy vetch and perennial ryegrass, respectively, compared with untreated seed. These results were consistent across experiment runs. Seed priming shows promise as a new technology for improving cover crop establishment in compacted soil. ]]> 2008-05-01 <![CDATA[Limited predictive ability of surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in Asian-Indian men]]> Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in Asian Indians and contributes to worldwide public health problems, including diabetes and related disorders. Surrogate measurements of insulin sensitivity/resistance are used frequently to study Asian Indians, but these are not formally validated in this population. In this study, we compared the ability of simple surrogate indices to accurately predict insulin sensitivity as determined by the reference glucose clamp method. In this cross-sectional study of Asian-Indian men (n = 70), we used a calibration model to assess the ability of simple surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity [quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR), fasting insulin-to-glucose ratio (FIGR), and fasting insulin (FI)] to predict an insulin sensitivity index derived from the reference glucose clamp method (SIClamp). Predictive accuracy was assessed by both root mean squared error (RMSE) of prediction as well as leave-one-out cross-validation-type RMSE of prediction (CVPE). QUICKI, FIGR, and FI, but not HOMA2-IR, had modest linear correlations with SIClamp (QUICKI: r = 0.36; FIGR: r = &ndash;0.36; FI: r = &ndash;0.27; P &lt; 0.05). No significant differences were noted among CVPE or RMSE from any of the surrogate indices when compared with QUICKI. Surrogate measurements of insulin sensitivity/resistance such as QUICKI, FIGR, and FI are easily obtainable in large clinical studies, but these may only be useful as secondary outcome measurements in assessing insulin sensitivity/resistance in clinical studies of Asian Indians.

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2010-06-01
<![CDATA[Cardiovascular responses to microinjections of urocortins into the NTS: role of inotropic glutamate receptors]]> Urocortin 1 (Ucn1) and urocortin 3 (Ucn3) are new members of the corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family. Ucn1 is a ligand for both the CRF type 1 receptors (CRF1Rs) and the CRF type 2 receptors (CRF2Rs), whereas Ucn3 is a high-affinity ligand for the CRF2Rs. Recently, we reported that Ucn3 microinjections into the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) elicit decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) (Nakamura T, Kawabe K, Sapru HN. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296: H325&ndash;H332, 2009). The presence of CRF2Rs on afferent terminals has been reported in the mNTS of the rat. It was hypothesized that activation of CRF2Rs on afferent terminals in the mNTS may release glutamate, which, in turn, may elicit decreases in MAP and HR via activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLURs). This hypothesis was tested in urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated, adult male Wistar rats. Microinjections (100 nl) of Ucn1 (0.12 mM) into the mNTS elicited decreases in MAP and HR. The responses were partially blocked by microinjections of iGLUR antagonists into the mNTS. On the other hand, the decreases in MAP and HR elicited by microinjections of Ucn3 (0.06 mM) into the mNTS were completely blocked by microinjections of iGLUR antagonists into the mNTS. These results indicate that activation of CRF2Rs in the mNTS, by Ucn1 and Ucn3, releases glutamate, which, in turn, elicits decreases in MAP and HR via activation of iGLURs.

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2009-06-01
<![CDATA[Isolation of murine lung endothelial cells]]> Several protocols for the isolation of endothelial cells (ECs) from murine lung have been described in the literature. We, however, encountered a number of problems while using these procedures that prevented us from consistently or reliably obtaining pure populations of ECs from the lungs of mice. By incorporating specific elements from previously published protocols, as well as adding some novel features, we developed a new strategy for isolating ECs from murine lung. In this approach, a suspension of lung cells is initially prepared from the lungs of 7- to 14-day-old mouse pups using procedures that prevent intravascular clotting and leukocyte activation, minimize mechanical trauma to the lung tissue, and limit exposure to the digesting enzymes. The resulting cell suspension is cultured for 2&ndash;3 days, trypsinized to produce a suspension of single cells, and then subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting using an anti-ICAM-2 antibody. The sorted cells are then plated and split 1:2 at each passage to maintain a high density of the cells. Using this approach, we have been able to isolate pure populations of ECs that were sustainable for extended periods in culture without the emergence of fibroblast overgrowth or the development of senescence. We believe the success of this approach will provide opportunities to take advantage of the large and growing number of knockout and transgenic mouse lines to investigate the endothelial-specific roles of targeted molecules in the pulmonary vasculature.

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2009-06-01
<![CDATA[Swelling and pressure-volume relationships in the dermis measured by osmotic-stress technique]]> P = 0.012, paired t-test, n = 7). Volume changes observed in response to pressure potential were reversible. The equation, Volume change = Vmax/[1+(time/T1/2)d], where Vmax is maximal volume change; T1/2, time at volume = 1/2 Vmax; and d, a rate parameter, was fitted to experimental progression curves (r2 > 0.9), yielding Vmax values linearly related to pressure, with mean slopes –3.5 ± 0.28 and –2.6 ± 0.21(SE) µl·g–1·mmHg–1 at 4°C and 37°C. NMR spin-spin relaxation times (T2) varied within 200- to 400-µm distances in directions perpendicular to the epidermis, with slopes reaching 0.03 ms/µm. Results support a mechanism in which fluid transport across the ECM is locally regulated at micrometer scales by cell- and fiber-gel-dependent osmomechanical forces. The large HP helps to explain the fast interstitial in/out flow rates observed clinically.]]> 2009-06-01 <![CDATA[Electrohydraulic pump-driven closed-loop blood pressure-regulatory system]]> In this paper, we describe our design for a new electrohydraulic (EH) pump-driven renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-regulatory system capable of implementing precise and rapid RPP regulation in experimental animals. Without this automated system, RPP is manually controlled via a blood pressure clamp, and the imprecision in this method leads to compromised RPP data. This motivated us to develop an EH pump-driven closed-loop blood pressure regulatory system based on flow-mediated occlusion using the vascular occlusive cuff technique. A closed-loop servo-controller system based on a proportional plus integral (PI) controller was designed using the dynamic feedback RPP signal from animals. In vivo performance was evaluated via flow-mediated RPP occlusion, maintenance, and release responses during baseline and ANG II-infused conditions. A step change of &ndash;30 mmHg, referenced to normal RPP, was applied to Sprague-Dawley rats with the proposed system to assess the performance of the PI controller. The PI's performance was compared against manual control of blood pressure clamp to regulate RPP. Rapid RPP occlusion (within 3 s) and a release time of ~0.3 s were obtained for the PI controller for both baseline and ANG II infusion conditions, in which the former condition was significantly better than manual control. We concluded that the proposed EH RPP-regulatory system could fulfill in vivo needs to study various pressure-flow relationships in diverse fields of physiology, in particular, studying the dynamics of the renal autoregulatory mechanisms.

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2009-06-01
<![CDATA[A New Measure of Alcohol Affordability for the UK]]> Aims: To present revisions to the official UK measure of alcohol affordability published by the National Health Service (NHS) Information Centre. The revisions address the following problems in the official measure:
  • (a)&nbsp;The income measure used in the calculation is a measure of the income for the whole population of the UK, not income per capita.

  • (b)&nbsp;The income measure includes &lsquo;imaginary&rsquo; items, namely imputed rentals and attributed income from insurance policies.

  • (c)&nbsp;The income measure is inconsistent in its treatment of housing costs.

  • (d)&nbsp;The adjustment for inflation makes the measure unnecessarily complex and can have counter-intuitive effects.

  • Methods: The revised measure has the same essential structure as the NHS measure, being the ratio of income to price of alcohol. Adjustments were applied to official income figures, and adjustments for inflation were removed. Results: The revised measure shows that affordability has levelled off since 2003, in contrast to the NHS measure, which shows it continuing to rise until 2008. Conclusion: The revised measure corrects a basic error of failing to divide total income for the UK by number of people in the population. This alters the measure but is more correct. Further improvements result in a measure that correlates more closely with UK alcohol consumption over the last decade.

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    2010-06-01
    <![CDATA[&#946;-Site amyloid precursor protein&#150;cleaving enzyme 1 activity is related to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of sortilin-related receptor with A-type repeats, soluble amyloid precursor protein, and tau]]> 2013-04-01 <![CDATA[From Electioneering to Governing: Obama's Transition as Legitimation Ritual]]> This essay reviews Barack Obama&rsquo;s 2008-2009 transition from president-elect to president. Not only must the new and old presidents coordinate practical, bureaucratic matters, but in the United States, the president-elect is put through an 11-week legitimation ritual. As his status is transformed from campaigner to president, his words and actions in various situations are viewed as tests of strengths, weaknesses, vision, prudence, negotiative skill, humanity, fiber, and resolve. Not only is he tested but his words and actions are read by the press, commentators, and bloggers as signs of good or bad fortune for the country, just as the augurs of old read natural signs before momentous events. In general, Obama passed the tests and for the most part, an era of good fortune was predicted.

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    2010-04-01
    <![CDATA[Effect of Some Fermentation Parameters on Ethanol Production from Beet Molasses by <I>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </I>CAIM13]]> Problem statement: Some component of fermentation medium showed to reduce the Saccharomyces cerivisae production of ethanol. Approach: This study was designed to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters in affecting ethanol productivity from beet molasses BM by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAIM13. Results: Increase in cell concentration (inoculums size) of the yeast above 3.6x105 cells/100 mL decreased the ethanol yield. The yeast could tolerate ethanol concentration up to 10% but failed to grow at concentration of 12 and 15%. Employment of a bench-scale tank fermenter enhanced the fermentation efficiency. 77% of BM sugars were assimilated after 48h giving a concentration of 5.4% ethanol. Utilization of a cell-recycling technique showed that the tested organism was capable of performing four fermentation cycles. The mud-free, H2SO4-treated beet molasses TBM was superior to sucrose in the repeated batch fermentation technique. A continuous-flow fermentation technique employing immobilized yeast cells yielded maximum ethanol productivity after 6 days. Conclusion: The present investigation has demonstrated the importance of some fermentation parameters in improving the alcoholic fermentation technology of BM. When free cells of S. cerevisiae. In the case of immobilized cells, the continuous-flow technique speared superior to the repeated batch-fermentation technique in production of alcohol from TBM.]]> 2011-02-01 <![CDATA[Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Functional Performance in Moderate to Severe Dementia--Interim Results]]> Dementia is a growing problem worldwide and interventions to effectively manage and promote function are urgently required. Multisensory environments (MSEs) have been used extensively with people with dementia; however, no studies have been conducted to explore the efficacy of sensory stimulation on functional performance. This study explores to what extent multisensory stimulation influences functional performance in people with moderate-to-severe dementia using an MSE compared with a control activity. Thirty participants with moderate-to-severe dementia were recruited from the South of England. Following baseline assessment and design of a bespoke intervention, each participant attended their allocated intervention (3 x week, for 4 weeks). Assessments were carried out pre and postsession using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Results indicate significant improvement in functional performance in both the MSE and the control activity. Findings support the use of MSEs as a strategy for enhancing functional performance in dementia.

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    2010-08-01
    <![CDATA[The Effect of Heat or Heat-Xylose Processing on Nitrogen Fractions and <I>in Situ</I>/<I>In Vitro</I> Ruminal and Post-Ruminal Protein Disappearance of Guar Meal]]> Problem statement: Guar meal is a by-product consisting of hull and germ and is mostly used as a protein source in poultry and ruminant rations. The aim was to determine the effect of heat or heat-xylose processing on nitrogen fractions, in situ ruminal degradation parameters and in situ/in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal disappearance of guar meal. Approach: Samples were intact Guar Meal (GM), heat processed GM (GMhp, GM was heated at 100&deg;C for 45 minute using industrial heater) and heat-xylose processed GM (GMhx, xylose was included in GM to give a final concentration of 10 g kg-1 DM, then was heat processed at 100&deg;C for 45 minute using industrial heater). Ruminal degradation parameters of DM and Crude Protein (CP) were determined by in situ technique using four ruminally fistulated sheep. Post-ruminal disappearance of ruminal-undegradable CP was determined on residue from 16 h ruminal incubation of guar meal samples by three-step in situ/in vitro enzymatic procedure. Results: Non-protein nitrogen of the GMhx and GM samples ranged from 218-319 (g kg-1 N). Acid detergents insoluble nitrogen concentration of both GM and GMhp was significantly lower than that of GMhx (10.3, 11.29 and 18.53 g kg-1 nitrogen, respectively). In situ fractional degradation rate constant (c) of DM and CP was significantly decreased as a result of heat-xylose processing. Effective crude protein degradability of GMhp and GMhx was higher than that of GM. Post-ruminal disappearance of ruminal-undegradable CP of GM hx (0.965) was significantly higher compared with GM and GMhp (0.918 and 0.906, respectively). Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrated that heat and heat-xylose processing might effectively protect the DM and CP of guar meal from ruminal degradation.]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[Field Programmable Gate Arrays Based Realization of Truncated Multipliers]]> Problem statement: Due to high cost and non reconfiguration of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) in image processing applications, for example MPEG video compression used in CT scan frames requires real time conditions and the algorithms should be verified and optimized before implementation. Approach: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) provides reconfiguration and implementation at the same time. Results: The implementation results of truncated multipliers on Sparatn-3An FPGA showed significant improvement as compared to Virtex and Virtex-E FPGA devices. Conclusion: Truncated multipliers can be used in medical imaging technology such as CT scan.]]> 2011-07-01 <![CDATA[Modeling Growth of Microalgae <I>Dunaliella Salina</I> under Different Nutritional Conditions]]> Problem statement: The aim of this study was to find the empirical model that describes the growth kinetics of Dunaliella salina, with low production cost and to estimate parameters of this model. Approach: In this study the strain of D. salina UTEX 200 was cultivated in seawater (0.5 M NaCl) at room temperature with agitation of 150 rpm and luminous intensity of 60 mmols.m-2.s-1. The synthetic medium AS100 (0.2 M NaCl) was used in this study for comparison purposes and in order to determine the optimal growth of the microalgae. Kinetics of growth and &#946;-carotene production was determined in a period of 15 days. Results: After the analysis of the behavior graphic, an unstructured model was used for describing the cell growth (logistic model). It was observed that the model was well adjusted to experimental data for the two conditions of analysis. It was observed that alga produces carotenoids under conditions of stress, in which the cell division are retarded. In the case of cells grown in seawater (higher salt concentration), the cell growth was lower but the concentration of &#946;-carotene was higher. Conclusion: In general, these results suggest that D. salina presents higher potential for &#946;-carotene accumulation and that high salinity decreases cellular concentration (measured by the parameter Xm of the kinetic model proposed); however there is an increase in &#946;-carotene production.]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[Effect of Photodynamic Product Chlorophyllin on Certain Biochemical Parameter in <I>Lymnaea acuminata</I>: Causative Agent of Fasciolosis]]> Background and Objective: Chlorophyll and chlorophyll derivatives are photosensitizer, which are capable to oxidize and reduce other molecules. The most extensively studied derivative of chlorophyll for their photodynamic activity against insect larvae is chlorophyllin, water-soluble derivative that can be obtained by removal of the phytol tail from the chlorophyll. The aim of present experiment to describe the certain biochemical/enzymatic changes in the gonadal tissues/nervous tissues of Lymnaea acuminata with the treatment of 20 and 60% of 24 h LC50 of extracted chlorophyllin in sunlight at 24 and 96 h in winter and summer season. Materials and Methods: Chlorophyll was extracted from spinach with the help of macerated leaves for 2 h in 100% ethanol at 55&deg;C. Different biochemical assay estimation with sub-lethal concentration (20 and 60% of 24 h LC50) of chlorophyllin were performed in treated and control group in winter sunlight and summer sunlight. Results: Among all the biochemical parameters the maximum reduction/inhibition was noted in the activity of DNA and AChE against L. acuminata in summer sunlight. Treatment of 60% of 24 h LC50 of extracted chlorophyllin at 96 h in sunlight caused maximum reduction in DNA (12.19% of control) in summer season. Exposure of 60% of 24 h LC50 of chlorophyllin for 96 h caused maximum inhibition in enzyme AChE activity (14.36% of control) in nervous tissues of snail in summer sunlight. Conclusion: Maximum variation in DNA and AChE activity by chlorophyllin in the gonadal tissue and nervous tissue of L. acuminata may be responsible for their molluscicidal activity and more effective in summer than winter season (sunlight condition).]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial]]> Background: Soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that potentially affect bone. Few long-term, large clinical trials of soy as a means of improving bone mineral density (BMD) in late postmenopausal women have been conducted.

    Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary soy protein and/or soy isoflavone consumption on skeletal health in late postmenopausal women.

    Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women aged &gt;60 y. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. After a 1-mo baseline period, subjects were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g) + isoflavone tablets (105 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein + placebo tablets, control protein + isoflavone tablets, and control protein + placebo tablets.

    Results: Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone pills did not differ between groups, and compliance with the study powder and pills was 80&ndash;90%. No significant differences in BMD were observed between groups from baseline to 1 y after the intervention or in BMD change between equol and non-equol producers. However, there were significant negative correlations between total dietary protein (per kg) and markers of bone turnover (P &lt; 0.05).

    Conclusions: Because soy protein and isoflavones (either alone or together) did not affect BMD, they should not be considered as effective interventions for preserving skeletal health in older women. The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00668447.

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    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Prescribing Pattern, Drug Utilization and Clinical Pharmacy Services in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients]]> Background and Objective: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the major leading cause of death worldwide according to WHO 2011. The aim of drug utilization research in Coronary artery disease was to facilitate the rational use of drugs in a specialized group of populations. The main objective of the study was to analyze the current trend of prescribing patterns of the drugs used in the management of Acute Coronary Syndrome at study site. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted for a period of 6 months in the Department of Medicine from Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Center. A total of 120 patients were selected for the study. Patient case files (including patient&#146;s specific information, drug therapy and laboratory investigations) were used to extract the necessary data. The percentages of data were calculated with the help of regular Microsoft excel 2007 sheet and the Sample size was calculated using the formula. Risk factors contributing to the development of Acute Coronary Syndrome were analyzed and various clinical pharmacy services were provided as a part of the study. Results: Out of the 120 patients enrolled in the study majority were male (81) and were found in the age group of 60-69 years. Smoking constituted the dominant risk factor followed by hypertension. Drug Related Problems (DRPs) found to be equally prevalent among all the age groups and were equally distributed among both the genders. Cessation of drug 28 (23%) and change in dose 17 (14%) were the interventions most frequently provided. The treatment received by the patients was in partial accordance with the ACC/AHA guidelines which was used as a comparative standard for the study. The study also unveiled the scope for the modification of this partial status to whole with the active participation of clinical pharmacists at the bed side. Drug utilization pattern among ACS patients were examined with the help of WHO prescribing indicators. Conclusion: The results were not optimal in accordance with the standard values of WHO prescribing indicators which suggest the necessity of modifying the hospital drug formulary and also to create awareness among physicians about rational drug use. On the whole, this study highlights the need of appropriate and timely interventions by the clinical pharmacist for the improvement of drug use, the patient&#146;s quality of life and to minimize DRP&#146;s.]]> 2017-02-01 <![CDATA[Special Issue for the 6<SUP>th</SUP> International Conference on Applied Financial Economics, Samos, Greece, 2-4 July 2009]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[A Methodology for the Selection of Micro-Assembly Techniques]]> Problem statement: The study addressed the problem of selecting the appropriate micro-assembly techniques according to the micro-part features. Actually, in the micro-domain, the choice of the correct assembly technique is highly dependent on the micro-part characteristics such as shape, geometry and material. Approach: Since there was an incomplete and unstructured knowledge about the micro-assembly, the study proposed a Decision Support System (DSS) as solution for assisting the designer in the correct selection of the most suitable micro-assembly strategies. The first step was establishing a structured correlation between micro-assembly techniques and part features. In particular the phases grasping and releasing were adopted as test-study for their importance in the micro-assembly process. The second step was the set up of a multistage model for the selection of the grasping-releasing technique and the implementation of the model in an Expert System as a set of rules. Results: The DSS was tested on some common micro-parts producing a scored list of selected grasping-releasing methods. Conclusion: The DSS proved quite valuable in the selection and the scoring of the micro-assembly principles that suit specific applications.]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[A Comparative Study on Safety and Security Management Systems in Industries]]> Problem statement: To understand and appreciate the safety and security management systems in industries with a view to find out critical areas requiring attention so as to enhance the effectiveness of safety management systems and security management systems in large, medium and small scale industries. Approach: The study was restricted to Large, Medium and Small scale industries located in Tamilnadu, Kerala, Pondycherry, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states of India. The data have been randomly collected from 45 samples each from Large, Medium and Small scale industries. This study has taken into the account of 6 major elements namely management commitment, documentation, facilities, promotion, procedure and training and each major elements having 6 sub elements thus consisting of 36 sub elements of safety management systems and 36 sub elements of security management systems. The sub-elements are prepared such as to reflect the availability of the safety and security management system in industries. Results: Major accident hazard industries require more attention towards safety and security management systems. The safety management system has gained more prevalence than security management system in large scale industries than the medium and small scale industries. The safety management system has considerable prevalence than security management system in medium scale industries than the small scale industries. The safety and security management system have more or less the same prevalence in the small scale industries. Conclusion: All the industries should devise systems for the adoption and implementation of safety and security management system. Security failures can lead to safety failures and hence they must be given equal importance. The major accident hazard industries should adopt all the safety and security management elements. All the elements of safety and security management systems should be given equal importance for effective and safe functioning of the industries. The security management system is an upcoming field which needs to be sincerely implemented in the industries in the present scenario of global terrorism. The safety and security management system should go together in a coherent manner to reduce the societal risk.]]> 2010-06-01 <![CDATA[Improvement of Functional and Technological Characteristics of Spaghetti by the Integration of Pomegranate Peels Powder]]> Background and Objective: Naturalistic antioxidants have a significant function in protecting the human body from a lot of diseases like as cancer. Pomegranate peels are deemed as a waste by-product which produced throughout the manufacturing of pomegranate, a big quantity of peels were produced and their elimination is considered a big problem and give rise to environmental distortion. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of incorporating dried pomegranate peels powder as a source of antioxidants and dietary fiber in spaghetti. Materials and Methods: In the current study, the peels were added in different percentages (3, 5 and 7%) throughout spaghetti preparation and their quality, sensory and antioxidant characteristics were estimated. Results: There was an increment in spaghetti total dietary fiber content from 2.88-7.86%. The content of polyphenols increased from 102.74-488.96 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and flavonoids content increased from 139.72-190.82 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g of spaghetti integrated with 7% pomegranate peel powder. The increment of pomegranate peel powder adding percentages caused a significant increase in solid loss and weight increase (%). Sensory evaluation results revealed that substitution of wheat flour in spaghetti with up to 7% pomegranate peel powder recorded satisfying consumer acceptability. Conclusion: The results nominated the possibility of making spaghetti integrated with pomegranate peel powder as a functional food.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Reflections on the Under-Researched Topic of Grief in Persons With Dementia: A Report From a Symposium on Grief and Dementia]]> This article describes a symposium about the clinical challenges of providing care to persons with dementia and their families. The plenary session addressed the bereavement process in the general older adult population, neurocognitive processes that alter the grief process in persons with dementia, and therapeutic approaches to support grieving persons in different stages of dementia. Participants from diverse health care disciplines met in small groups to identify (1) current responses to persons with dementia and their families who experience a loss; (2) barriers to providing effective responses; and (3) possible interventions to improve care. Two general types of interventions emerged: practical/agency support and spiritual/affective engagement.

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    2010-08-01
    <![CDATA[Relation of Serum and Semen Malondialdehyde and Total Anti-Oxidants with Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men]]> Problem statement: Oxidative Stress (OS) has been recognized as one of the most important cause of male infertility. We studied the relation of serum and Semen Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) with sperm parameters in infertile men with sperm count within the normal range. Approach: The prospective case- control study performed on infertile men presenting to the infertility clinics of Mirzakochak khan hospital, Tehran university of Medical Sciences from June 2007 to June 2009. The samples were collected consecutively and the total of 40 infertile men was enrolled in the study. Also, 40 healthy men were matched as control group. MDA and TAC in serum and seminal plasma were measured and relation between them and semen analysis parameters were evaluated. The MDA was measured as nmol mL-1 and the TAC was expressed as g dL-1. Results: Analysis showed that the amount of semen MDA was statistically different in infertile and healthy control groups. We did not find any significant relation between smoking and sperm parameters in infertile men. The relation between semen MDA and abnormal sperm abnormal morphology (p = 0.003, r = -0.468) and semen TAC and weak sperm motility (p = 0.037, r = -0.359) was significant. Conclusion: Immediate attention should be directed at simplifying and validating the evaluation of reactive oxygen species and OS status so that it can be performed routinely.]]> 2010-03-01 <![CDATA[Immunity to Diphtheria in Haemodialysis Patients]]> Problem statement: The incidence of infectious diseases is increased in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure severely influences the immune functions of the host. Diphtheria is of great epidemiological concern. Although mainly observed during childhood, unvaccinated adults and relatively immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for acquiring diphtheria. Approach: To evaluate the anti-Diphtheria immunity level in southern Iranian patients with end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis and to find its association with sex, age, blood hemoglobin, serum albumin and duration of dialysis. This cross sectional study was carried out on a total of 52 patients, who were on hemodialysis and 52 age and sex matched healthy individuals with without any underlying renal disease as a control group. Subjects in the both groups receiving antidiphtheria toxoid vaccine or immunoglubins a year prior to the study were excluded. The serum antidiphtheria IgG antibody levels were measured by an ELISA method. Results: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients and the control groups were 34.6 and 63.30% respectively. Of the evaluating factors just hemodialysis duration found to affect on diphtheria immunity. Conclusion: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients group were significantly less than diphtheria protected individuals in the control group (p = 0.011). Hemodialysis duration has significant effect on anti-diphtheria immunity level.]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Multiple Symptomatic Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations in a Patient with HIV]]> SUMMARY: This brief case report describes an unusual presumed association of chronic HIV infection with multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations. An adult male patient presented with recurrent spontaneous brain intracranial hemorrhages and neurologic deficits requiring surgical evacuation. The diagnosis was delayed because of lack of a high index of suspicion of this unexpected and previously unrecognized association.

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    2009-06-01
    <![CDATA[Anti-Arthritic Activity of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of <I>Urtica pilulifera</I> L. on Albino Rats]]> Problem statement: Urtica pilulifera (Urticeacae) has been used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation and arthritis. In this study the anti-arthritic effect of methanolic leaf extract of the plant was evaluated and compared to untreated control as well as ibuprofen-treated groups in a rat model of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Approach: Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the right paw. The extract was given orally one day before CFA injection up to the completion of study (for 30 days). Two extract doses (1.33 and 2.0 g kg-1) and ibuprofen (53 mg kg-1) as a positive control were used. Paw volume was measured on alternate days up to 30 days. In addition, the effect of the extract on joint deformity, ankle swelling and inflammatory markers was evaluated. Results: The extract prevented arthritis-induced increase in paw volume and joint deformity dose-dependently as compared to control. Moreover, the extract showed significant increase in the packed cell volume [p&lt;0.05]. No alteration of kidney or liver function tests was detected in rats during repeated dose treatment. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional use of U. pilulifera for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and rheumatoid arthritis and suggests further evaluation for its role in increasing red blood cells.]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate is involved in the cAMP-dependent amylase release in parotid acinar cells]]> Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is known as a major cellular substrate for protein kinase C (PKC). MARCKS has been implicated in the regulation of brain development and postnatal survival, cellular migration and adhesion, as well as phagocytosis, endocytosis, and exocytosis. The involvement of MARCKS phosphorylation in secretory function has been reported in Ca2+-mediated exocytosis. In rat parotid acinar cells, the activation of &beta;-adrenergic receptors provokes exocytotic amylase release via accumulation of intracellular cAMP levels. Here, we studied the involvement of MARCKS phosphorylation in the cAMP-dependent amylase release in rat parotid acinar cells. MARCKS protein was detected in rat parotid acinar cells by Western blotting. The &beta;-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (IPR) induced MARCKS phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Translocation of a part of phosphorylated MARCKS from the membrane to the cytosol and enhancement of MARCKS phosphorylation at the apical membrane site induced by IPR were observed by immunohistochemistry. H89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, inhibited the IPR-induced MARCKS phosphorylation. The PKC inhibitor rottlerin inhibited the IPR-induced MARCKS phosphorylation and amylase release. IPR activated PKC, and the effects of IPR were inhibited by the PKA inhibitors. A MARCKS-related peptide partially inhibited the IPR-induced amylase release. These findings suggest that MARCKS phosphorylation via the activation of PKC, which is downstream of PKA activation, is involved in the cAMP-dependent amylase release in parotid acinar cells.

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    2009-06-01
    <![CDATA[Sodium Chloride Primed Seeds Modulate Glutathione Metabolism in Legume Cultivars under NaCl Stress]]> Background and Objective: Soil salinity causes major inhibition in growth and productivity of legumes cultivars. Thus, it is necessary to protect legume crops grown in saline soil by cost effective, eco-friendly and farmer friendly methods. Present study investigated the degree of damage caused by salinity stress on ascorbate-glutathione cycle of some legumes and its possible reversal by priming of seeds with mild dose of NaCl. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out with the seedlings germinated from non pretreated and pretreated seeds (halo primed with 50 mM NaCl) of arhar (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp. cv T120), maskalai (Vigna mungo L. Hepper cv. WBU109) and khesari (Lathyrus sativus L. cv. Nirmal) to characterize the toxic effects of sodium chloride on oxidative stress markers and glutathione metabolism of test seedlings and its possible reversal by NaCl pretreatment. Statistical analyses were performed by two-sided Student&#146;s t-test (considered statistically significant at p&lt;0.05, p&lt;0.01 and p&lt;0.001) and regression analyses were done using Minitab 17 software. Results: Salinity resulted in increased amount of total glutathione contents (136% in root and 39% in shoot of arhar, 103% in root and 67% in shoot of khesari and 86% in root and 81% in shoot of maskalai) and reduction in ascorbate contents (reduced by 15% in root and 18% in shoot of arhar, 13% in root and 20% in shoot of khesari and 14% in root and 21% in shoot of maskalai) in all the three tested legume cultivars. The variations in the above contents were due to differential activities of antioxidant and glutathione metabolizing enzymes as well as altered levels of oxidative stress markers under NaCl stress. However, by adopting pretreatment technology, such damage was found to be altered in pretreated legume seedlings variably promoting better growth. Conclusion: NaCl primed seeds exhibited significant alterations of all the tested parameters in legume seedlings that might promote better agricultural productivity in saline prone soils.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Social Norm Processing in Adult Social Phobia: Atypically Increased Ventromedial Frontal Cortex Responsiveness to Unintentional (Embarrassing) Transgressions]]> Objective:

    Little is known about the neural underpinnings of generalized social phobia, which is defined by a persistent heightened fear of social disapproval. Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), the authors examined whether the intent of an event, which mediates the neural response to social disapproval in healthy individuals, differentially affects response in generalized social phobia.

    Method:

    Sixteen patients with generalized social phobia and 16 healthy comparison subjects group-matched on age, gender, and IQ underwent fMRI scans while reading stories that involved neutral social events, unintentional social transgressions (e.g., choking on food at a party and coughing it up), or intentional social transgressions (e.g., disliking food at a party and spitting it out).

    Results:

    Significant group-by-transgression interactions were observed in ventral regions of the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy individuals tended to show increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses to intentional relative to unintentional transgressions. Patients with generalized social phobia, however, showed significantly increased responses to the unintentional transgressions. They also rated the unintentional transgressions as significantly more embarrassing than did the comparison subjects. Results also revealed significant group main effects in the amygdala and insula bilaterally, reflecting elevated generalized social phobia responses in these regions to all event types.

    Conclusions:

    These results further implicate the medial prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of generalized social phobia, specifically through its involvement in distorted self-referential processing. These results also further underscore the extended role of the amygdala and insula in the processing of social stimuli more generally in generalized social phobia.

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    2010-12-01
    <![CDATA[Long-Term Quality of Life Assessment Among Patients Undergoing Uterine Fibroid Embolization]]> OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was assessment of the long-term outcome of fibroid-associated quality of life among patients treated with uterine fibroid embolization.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective follow-up cohort study included all patients described in a 2006 publication. Analysis was performed with a questionnaire consisting of 49 questions about six topics. Assessment was focused on comparing symptoms and quality of life in long-term follow-up.

    RESULTS. The analysis was based on questionnaires completed by 39 patients. The median follow-up period was 7 years (interquartile range, 1.5 years). Uterine fibroid embolization led to a reduction of bleeding symptoms in 89.7% of the patients, pain in 78.9%, bulk-related symptoms in 89.5%, fatigue in 76.9%, limitations of social life in 92.9%, and depression in 78.6%. The median impairment scores for bleeding and pain decreased significantly from 7 to 0 and from 5 to 0 (both p &lt; 0.001). The general quality-of-life index increased significantly from 4.5 to 9 (p &lt; 0.001). In the long term, there was no significant difference in parameters assessed compared with the midterm follow-up findings. Six patients (15.4%) underwent hysterectomy an average of 32.1 months after intervention. Thirty-two patients (82.1%) continued to be satisfied with the intervention, and 30 patients (76.9%) answered that they would recommend uterine fibroid embolization to other patients.

    CONCLUSION. Uterine fibroid embolization seems to lead to notable long-term relief of fibroid-associated symptoms. In comparison with the midterm results, long-term outcome shows a clear continuance of improvement in general quality of life.

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    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block with 20 Milliliters Local Anesthetic Mixture Versus General Anesthesia for Upper Limb Trauma Surgery: An Observer-Blinded, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial]]> OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing low-dose ultrasound-guided axillary block with general anesthesia evaluating anesthetic and perioperative analgesic outcomes.

    METHODS: Patients were randomized to either ultrasound-guided axillary block or general anesthesia. Ultrasound-guided axillary block was performed using a needle-out-of-plane approach. Up to 5 mL of local anesthetic injectate (equal parts 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 0.5% bupivacaine with 7.5 mg/mL clonidine) was injected after identifying the median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves. A maximum of 20 mL local anesthetic injectate was used. General anesthesia was standardized to include induction with fentanyl and propofol, maintenance with sevoflurane in an oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture. Pain scores were measured in the recovery room and at 2, 6, 24, 48 h, and 7 days. Ability to bypass the recovery room and time to achieve hospital discharge criteria were also assessed.

    RESULTS: All ultrasound-guided axillary block patients achieved satisfactory anesthesia. The ultrasound-guided axillary block group had lower visual analog scale pain scores in the recovery room (0.3 [1.3] vs 55.8 [36.5], P &lt; 0.001), and visual rating scale pain scores at 2 h (0.3 [1.3] vs 45 [29.6], P &lt; 0.001), and at 6 h (1.1 [2.7] vs 4 [2.8], P &lt; 0.01). All ultrasound-guided axillary block patients bypassed the recovery room and attained earlier hospital discharge criteria (30 min vs 120 min 30/240 P &lt; 0.0001 median [range]).

    CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with 20 mL local anesthetic mixture provided satisfactory anesthesia and superior analgesia after upper limb trauma surgery when compared with general anesthesia.

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    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Revascularization Versus Medical Therapy for Renal Artery Stenosis: Antihypertensive Drugs and Renal Outcome]]> Endovascular procedures may play a role in renal artery stenosis (RAS) treatment in attempt to preserve renal function and improve hypertension control. We determined renal outcome and the incidence of restenosis in patients with RAS treated with renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (RPTAs) and medical therapy versus patients with RAS treated only with medical therapy. We performed an observational study based on 93 patients with RAS. In all, 53 patients underwent RPTAs in association with medical therapy and 40 patients were only treated pharmacologically. In patients receiving RPTAs, a better renal outcome, a decrease of restenosis rate, and systolic&mdash;diastolic blood pressure were associated with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) + angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-is) therapy. In patients treated with medical therapy alone, renal improvement was related to ARBs in association with BBs (&beta;-blockers; P &lt; .0001). This study suggests that medical therapy may exert beneficial effects in patients with RAS.

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    2011-01-01
    <![CDATA[Should you eat your offspring before someone else does? Effect of an egg predator on filial cannibalism in the sand goby]]> 2009-01-01 <![CDATA[Construction of Porcine Growth Hormone Eukaryotic Expression Vector and Its Transfection Mediated by Cationic Liposome in Mice]]> 2011-04-01 <![CDATA[Uptake of aluminium into Arabidopsis root cells measured by fluorescent lifetime imaging]]> Background and Aims

    Measuring the Al3+ uptake rate across the plasma membrane of intact root cells is crucial for understanding the mechanisms and time-course of Al toxicity in plants. However, a reliable method with the sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to estimate Al3+ uptake in intact root cells does not exist.

    Methods

    In the current study, fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM) analysis was used to quantify Al3+ uptake in the root-cell cytoplasm in vivo. This was performed via the estimation of the fluorescence lifetime of Al&ndash;lumogallion {5-chloro-3[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)azo]-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid} complexes and measurements of intracellular pH while exposing arabidopsis seedlings to acidic and Al3+ stresses.

    Key Results

    The lifetime of Al&ndash;lumogallion complexes fluorescence is pH-dependent. The primary sites for Al3+ entry are the meristem and distal elongation zones, while Al3+ uptake via the cortex and epidermis of the mature root zone is limited. The maximum rates of Al uptake into the cytoplasm (2&ndash;3 &micro;mol m&ndash;3 min&ndash;1 for the meristematic root zone and 3&ndash;7 &micro;mol m&ndash;3 min&ndash;1 for the mature zone) were observed after a 30-min exposure to 100 &micro;m AlCl3 (pH 4&middot;2). Intracellular Al concentration increased to 0&middot;4 &micro;m Al within the first 3 h of exposure to 100 &micro;m AlCl3.

    Conclusions

    FLIM analysis of the fluorescence of Al&ndash;lumogallion complexes can be used to reliably quantify Al uptake in the cytoplasm of intact root cells at the initial stages of Al3+ stress.

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    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Cortisol measurement in patients receiving metyrapone therapy]]> Current guidance recommends titrating the dose of metyrapone against serum cortisol concentration, in patients under medical management of Cushing's syndrome. In the UK, this almost always involves measuring serum cortisol concentration by immunoassay, the performance of which is questionable in the presence of altered steroid metabolism. Sera from two patients receiving metyrapone were analysed using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) steroid assay to identify which steroids, if any, were elevated in these patients. In addition, control serum was spiked with a series of steroids to identify any potential positive interferences in a cortisol immunoassay. Serum 11-deoxycortisol concentration was elevated in both of the patients studied. One patient also had an elevated serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentration and the other an elevated androstenedione. In addition, the results of the interference studies indicated that the cortisol immunoassay was susceptible to interference from 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol. However, the magnitude of interference, in the serum cortisol immunoassay, due to these three steroids could not account for the discrepancy between the cortisol concentrations measured by immunoassay and those measured by MS. Both clinicians and laboratory staff should be aware of these interferences when monitoring patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone, and consequently serum should be measured in these patients by MS, not by immunoassay.

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    2010-06-01
    <![CDATA[Phase II study of 3-AP Triapine in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma]]> Background: Treatment options for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are limited with response rates to cytotoxic chemotherapy of ~30% and median survival of 6 months.

    Patients and methods: In a multicentre phase II study, 32 patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC received 3-AP Triapine (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, 96 mg/m2, daily for 4 days every 14 days (one cycle). Eligibility criteria required Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of zero to two with a life expectancy of &gt;3 months; one prior chemotherapy regimen was allowed.

    Results: Thirty patients were assessable for response and toxicity. Median age was 57 years (range 36&ndash;79) and median ECOG PS was one (range 0&ndash;2). Thirteen patients had previously been treated with chemotherapy. A total of 130 cycles were administered with a median number of cycles of 3.5 (range 1&ndash;8). Mild anaemia (40%), nausea (22%) and fatigue (22%) were commonly reported with G3 and G4 neutropenia documented in 22% and 22%, respectively. Overall response rate was 5.9% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 28.7%). One patient achieved a partial response, eight had stable disease and 21 progressive disease. Median time to disease progression was 3.9 months.

    Conclusions: 3-AP Triapine as a single agent, at this dose and schedule, is well tolerated but has only minor activity in the treatment of advanced HNSCC.

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    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[Mode of action of abatacept in rheumatoid arthritis patients having failed tumour necrosis factor blockade: a histological, gene expression and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging pilot study]]> Objectives:

    Abatacept is the only agent currently approved to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that targets the co-stimulatory signal required for full T-cell activation. No studies have been conducted on its effect on the synovium, the primary site of pathology. The aim of this study was to determine the synovial effect of abatacept in patients with RA and an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) blocking therapy.

    Methods:

    This first mechanistic study incorporated both dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy-acquired synovial biopsies before and 16 weeks after therapy, providing tissue for immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR analyses.

    Results:

    Sixteen patients (13 women) were studied; all had previously failed TNF-blocking therapy. Fifteen patients completed the study. Synovial biopsies showed a small reduction in cellular content, which was significant only for B cells. The quantitative PCR showed a reduction in expression for most inflammatory genes (Wald statistic of p&lt;0.01 indicating a significant treatment effect), with particular reduction in IFN of &ndash;52% (95% CI &ndash;73 to &ndash;15, p&lt;0.05); this correlated well with MRI improvements. In addition, favourable changes in the osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B levels were noted. DCE&ndash;MRI showed a reduction of 15&ndash;40% in MRI parameters.

    Conclusion:

    These results indicate that abatacept reduces the inflammatory status of the synovium without disrupting cellular homeostasis. The reductions in gene expression influence bone positively and suggest a basis for the recently demonstrated radiological improvements that have been seen with abatacept treatment in patients with RA.

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    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[In Vitro and In Vivo Validation of <I>ligA</I> and <I>tarI</I> as Essential Targets in <I>Staphylococcus aureus</I>]]> D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter to validate essential genes of Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. The system has been applied to prove the essentiality of ligA and to evaluate the function of tarI, which was found to be essential in vitro but not in vivo.]]> 2008-12-01 <![CDATA[Transposable Element Loads in a Bacterial Symbiont of Weevils Are Extremely Variable]]> 2008-12-01 <![CDATA[Paper-structured fiber composites impregnated with platinum nanoparticles synthesized on a carbon fiber matrix for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides]]> X) in the presence of methane (CH4), both of which are model exhaust gas components of combustion engines, paper-structured PtNPs catalyst demonstrated excellent NOX and CH4 removal efficiency and rapid thermal responsiveness by comparison with the PtNPs-supported carbon fibers, commercial Pt catalyst powders and a monolithic Pt-loaded honeycomb. These features of the new catalyst material are thought to arise from synergistic effects of the highly active PtNPs in association with the unique paper-like microstructure, in promoting effective transfer of heat and reactants to the active sites of the Pt nanocatalysts. The paper-structured PtNPs catalyst with paper-like practical utility is expected to be a promising catalytic material for efficient NOX gas purification.]]> 2009-03-4-01 <![CDATA[Gold and oil futures markets: Are markets efficient?]]> 2010-10-01 <![CDATA[Water geochemistry of the Xijiang basin rivers, South China: Chemical weathering and CO<sub>2</sub> consumption]]> 2 consumption and anthropogenic influences within the carbonate-dominated basin. The major ion compositions of the river waters are characterized by the dominance of Ca2+, Mg2+, View the MathML source View the MathML source View the MathML source is mainly derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals and acid precipitation caused by coal combustion. Chemical and Sr isotopic compositions of the river waters indicate that four reservoirs (carbonates, silicates, evaporites and anthropogenic inputs) contribute to the total dissolved loads. The chemical weathering rates of carbonates and silicates for the Xijiang basin are estimated to be approximately 78.5 and 7.45&nbsp;ton&nbsp;km&#x2212;2&nbsp;a&#x2212;1, respectively. The total chemical weathering rate of rocks for the Xijiang basin is approximately 86.1&nbsp;ton&nbsp;km&#x2212;2&nbsp;a&#x2212;1 or 42&nbsp;mm&nbsp;ka&#x2212;1, which is much higher than global mean values. The budgets of CO2 consumption by carbonate and silicate weathering are estimated to be 284&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;109 and 54.3&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;109&nbsp;mol&nbsp;a&#x2212;1, respectively. It would appear that H2SO4 is involved as a proton donor in weathering reactions in the Xijiang basin; calculated results show that the contribution of cations from rock weathering induced by H2SO4 accounts for approximately 11.2%. Results from this study show that the flux of CO2 released into the atmosphere is approximately 0.1&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;106&nbsp;mol&nbsp;C&nbsp;km&#x2212;2&nbsp;a&#x2212;1 or 0.41&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;1012&nbsp;g&nbsp;C&nbsp;a&#x2212;1 produced by H2SO4-induced carbonate weathering in the basin. When extrapolated to the entire surface area of carbonate in SW China, the flux of CO2 released to the atmosphere by H2SO4-induced carbonate weathering is about 1.41&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;1012&nbsp;g&nbsp;C&nbsp;a&#x2212;1.]]> 2010-10-01 <![CDATA[Inverse problem for the reaction diffusion system by optimization method]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Multivariate Bell polynomials and their applications to powers and fractionary iterates of vector power series and to partial derivatives of composite vector functions]]> 2008-02-01 <![CDATA[EPR analysis of the effects of accelerated carbon ion and fast neutron irradiations on table sugar]]> 2009-09-01 <![CDATA[Speedy photoelectric exchange of CdSe quantum dots/mesoporous titania composite system ]]> 2009-06-01 <![CDATA[Effect of <em>Echinacea purpurea</em> on growth and survival of guppy (<em>Poecilia reticulata</em>) challenged with <em>Aeromonas bestiarum</em>]]> Echinacea purpurea supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, body composition and disease resistance were studied in the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata. Five diets were used, each differing in Echinacea content (0 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; control, 5 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 1, 10 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 2, 20 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 3, 30 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 4 and 60 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 5), and the fish were fed twice daily at a rate of 30 g kg&#8722;1 body weight per day for 67 days. The gain in the body weight and the condition factor were significantly increased in groups 2-5, whereas specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were significantly increased in the supplemented groups (P &lt; 0.05). Cumulative mortalities after challenge infection with the fish pathogen Aeromonas bestiarum were the lowest in the groups supplemented with Echinacea. Log-rank tests showed significant differences between the supplemented groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and the control group (P = 0.0074, P = 0.0075, P = 0.00507, P = 0.00001 and P = 0.00001, respectively). The results of this study indicate that Echinacea improves body weight gain and resistance against challenge infection in fish.]]> 2011-06-01 <![CDATA[The saga of community learning: Mariculture and the Bolinao experience]]> 2014-02-01 <![CDATA[Specific Nail Alterations in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Successful Treatment With Topical Mechlorethamine]]> Background&nbsp; Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma can be associated with clinically significant nail alterations, the presentation of which can be protean and misleading. To date, only a few reports have demonstrated direct specific tumor infiltration of the nail bed, while little is known about the efficacy of topical treatments.

    Observations&nbsp; We describe the case of a 93-year-old man presenting with S&eacute;zary syndrome who developed clinically significant nail alterations. Light microscopy studies and T-cell receptor rearrangement analysis demonstrated the presence of a specific lymphocytic infiltrate within the nail bed. The patient was given repeated courses of topical mechlorethamine, leading to a sustained complete remission of both skin and nail alterations.

    Conclusions&nbsp; Specific nail involvement should be recognized and considered in all patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Topical mechlorethamine remains an attractive therapeutic option in cases of specific nail alterations, especially for situations in which systemic therapies are either not indicated or unlikely to be well tolerated.

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    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome: a cause of extreme macrocephaly and neurodevelopmental delay]]> Background:

    Bannayan&ndash;Riley&ndash;Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by macrocephaly, developmental delay and subtle cutaneous features. BRRS results from mutations in the PTEN gene. In adults, PTEN mutations cause Cowden syndrome where, in addition to the macrocephaly, there is a higher risk of tumour development. Diagnosis of BRRS is often delayed as presentation can be variable, even within families.

    Aims:

    To identify characteristics of this condition which might facilitate early diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis not only avoids unnecessary investigations in the child but potentially identifies heterozygote parents who are at risk of tumour development.

    Methods and Results:

    Six children with a PTEN mutation were identified. All had extreme macrocephaly. Four parents and a male sibling were found to have a PTEN mutation on subsequent testing. Affected parents had extreme macrocephaly and a history of thyroid adenoma, or breast or skin lesions. All six children had presented to medical attention before the age of 2.5 years (3/6 were investigated as neonates), but the median age at diagnosis was 5 years. Four of the children had multiple investigations prior to identification of a PTEN mutation.

    Conclusion:

    BRRS should be considered in children with extreme macrocephaly as it is the most consistent clinical feature seen, particularly where there is a family history of macrocephaly.

    ]]>
    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[Laterobasal Amygdalar Enlargement in 6- to 7-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder]]> Context&nbsp; There is substantial imaging evidence for volumetric abnormalities of the amygdala in younger children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The amygdala can be divided into functionally distinct laterobasal, superficial, and centromedial subregions. To date, we are not aware of any in vivo reports specifically assessing subregional amygdalar abnormalities in individuals with ASD.

    Objectives&nbsp; To evaluate alterations in subregional amygdalar morphology in children with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) children and to examine the relationships with ASD symptom severity.

    Design&nbsp; A cross-sectional study encompassing a narrow age range of children with ASD and age-matched TD children that evaluated magnetic resonance imaging&ndash;defined subregional morphology of the amygdala using a novel subregional analytic method.

    Setting&nbsp; Participants were recruited and clinically evaluated through the University of Washington Autism Center and imaged at the Diagnostic Imaging Sciences Center at the University of Washington. Imaging data were analyzed through the Brain Imaging Laboratory at the Seoul National University.

    Participants&nbsp; Fifty-one children 6 to 7 years of age (ASD, n&nbsp;=&nbsp;31 and TD, n&nbsp;=&nbsp;20) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral measures.

    Main Outcome Measures&nbsp; Volume and subregional measures of the amygdala and measures of social and communication functioning.

    Results&nbsp; The ASD group exhibited larger right and left amygdalae, by 12.7% and 11.0%, respectively, relative to the TD group. Subregional analysis revealed that the ASD group had enlarged laterobasal amygdalar subregions, relative to the TD group, after adjusting for age, sex, and hemispheric cerebral volume (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.05, false discovery rate corrected and with clustered surface points >15). Exploratory analyses revealed that there were linear trends comparing a strictly defined subgroup of children with autistic disorder, who exhibited the greatest extent of laterobasal enlargement, followed by a subgroup of children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and then the group of TD children (P for linear trend &lt;.001). There were linear trends between enlargement of laterobasal subregions and lower levels of social and communication functioning (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001, and P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.001 for 3 areas in the right laterobasal subregion; P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001 for 1 area in the left laterobasal subregion).

    Conclusion&nbsp; The current study demonstrates bilateral enlargement of laterobasal subregions of the amygdala in 6- to 7-year-old children with ASD and that subregional alterations are associated with deficits in social and communicative behavior.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Testing for the Presence of Positive-Outcome Bias in Peer Review: A Randomized Controlled Trial]]> Background&nbsp; If positive-outcome bias exists, it threatens the integrity of evidence-based medicine.

    Methods&nbsp; We sought to determine whether positive-outcome bias is present during peer review by testing whether peer reviewers would (1) recommend publication of a "positive" version of a fabricated manuscript over an otherwise identical "no-difference" version, (2) identify more purposefully placed errors in the no-difference version, and (3) rate the "Methods" section in the positive version more highly than the identical "Methods" section in the no-difference version. Two versions of a well-designed randomized controlled trial that differed only in the direction of the finding of the principal study end point were submitted for peer review to 2 journals in 2008-2009. Of 238 reviewers for The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research randomly allocated to review either a positive or a no-difference version of the manuscript, 210 returned reviews.

    Results&nbsp; Reviewers were more likely to recommend the positive version of the test manuscript for publication than the no-difference version (97.3% vs 80.0%, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001). Reviewers detected more errors in the no-difference version than in the positive version (0.85 vs 0.41, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001). Reviewers awarded higher methods scores to the positive manuscript than to the no-difference manuscript (8.24 vs 7.53, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.005), although the "Methods" sections in the 2 versions were identical.

    Conclusions&nbsp; Positive-outcome bias was present during peer review. A fabricated manuscript with a positive outcome was more likely to be recommended for publication than was an otherwise identical no-difference manuscript.

    ]]>
    2010-12-01
    <![CDATA[Special Considerations for Pars Plana Tube-Shunt Placement in Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis]]> The Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis has been successfully used in eyes with a poor prognosis for a conventional penetrating keratoplasty. The Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis Study Group reported significant postoperative vision improvement with a high rate of graft retention. However, glaucoma has significantly limited visual potential in patients with otherwise successful transplants. Given a crowded anterior chamber, scarring, and/or inability to visualize the anterior segment after the keratoprosthesis implantation, vitrectomy and pars plana tube placement is frequently necessary for intraocular pressure control. In addition, the need for optimal contact lens fitting after surgery necessitates a modified surgical technique for the combined procedure to avoid complications and to achieve optimal visual rehabilitation. We present our technique in a case series of combined vitrectomy and pars plana glaucoma shunt placement for the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Effect of Apolactoferrin on Experimental Pneumococcal Otitis Media]]> Objective&nbsp; To find the effect of apolactoferrin administration on the middle and inner ears after experimentally induced pneumococcal otitis media.

    Design&nbsp; Histopathologic and morphometric analysis of the middle and inner ears.

    Setting&nbsp; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

    Subjects&nbsp; Ten chinchillas.

    Interventions&nbsp; The middle ear cavities of chinchillas were inoculated bilaterally with type 2 wild-type Streptococcus pneumoniae. Twenty-four hours later, the ears of 5 of the animals were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the other 5 with human apolactoferrin. The animals were killed 24 hours after the last injection. Bacterial counts were made of the middle ear effusions, and the cochleae were processed for histologic analysis. The thickness of the round window membranes and bacterial and inflammatory cell infiltration of the round window membranes, and scala tympani and damage of the hair cells and stria vascularis were compared for these 2 groups of animals.

    Main Outcome Measures&nbsp; Comparison of inflammatory and bacterial cells in the middle and inner ears, and damage to inner ear structures.

    Results&nbsp; Bacterial plate counts of middle ear effusions (P&nbsp;&nbsp;=&nbsp;.005) and the number of inflammatory cells in the round window membrane (P&nbsp;&nbsp;=&nbsp;.047) were significantly lower in the apolactoferrin group compared with the group treated with PBS.

    Conclusion&nbsp; Further investigation of apolactoferrin as a nonantibiotic approach for the treatment of otitis media and its complications is needed to confirm its safety and efficacy.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Complicated Grief and Associated Risk Factors Among Parents Following a Child's Death in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit]]> Objective&nbsp; To investigate the extent of complicated grief symptoms and associated risk factors among parents whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Design&nbsp; Cross-sectional survey conducted by mail and telephone.

    Setting&nbsp; Seven children's hospitals affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2008.

    Participants&nbsp; Two hundred sixty-one parents from 872 families whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit 6 months earlier.

    Main Exposure&nbsp; Assessment of potential risk factors, including demographic and clinical variables, and parent psychosocial characteristics, such as attachment style, caregiving style, grief avoidance, and social support.

    Main Outcome Measure&nbsp; Parent report of complicated grief symptoms using the Inventory of Complicated Grief. Total scale range is from 0 to 76; scores of 30 or higher suggest complicated grief.

    Results&nbsp; Mean (SD) Inventory of Complicated Grief scores among parents were 33.7 (14.1). Fifty-nine percent of parents (95% confidence interval, 53%-65%) had scores of 30 or higher. Variables independently associated with higher symptom scores in multivariable analysis included being the biological mother or female guardian, trauma as the cause of death, greater attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance, and greater grief avoidance.

    Conclusions&nbsp; Parents who responded to our survey experienced a high level of complicated grief symptoms 6 months after their child's death in the pediatric intensive care unit. However, our estimate of the extent of complicated grief symptoms may be biased because of a high number of nonresponders. Better understanding of complicated grief and its risk factors among parents will allow those most vulnerable to receive professional bereavement support.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Women in Surgery: A Survey in Switzerland]]> An increasing proportion of women work in medicine; however, only few choose surgical specialties. The objective of this study was to analyze the current situation of female surgeons and surgical residents in Switzerland concerning their personal and professional fulfillment. Of 318 female surgeons and surgical residents included in our study, 189 (59.4%) returned the anonymous questionnaire. Mentor-mentee relationships were mentioned by 110 (58.2%) of the 189 respondents. On the basis of a 7-point Likert scale, these women responded that they were moderately satisfied with their professional (mean score [SD], 2.7&nbsp;[1.3]) and personal (mean score [SD], 3.0&nbsp;[1.7]) lives. Of the 189 respondents, 113 (59.8%) mentioned that they felt underappreciated. The most important ways suggested for increasing the attractiveness of a surgical career for women were a reduction in workload (49 respondents [25.9%]), more flexible working hours (38 respondents [20.1%]), and better structured residency programs (23 respondents [12.2%]).

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Serum Resistin Concentrations and Risk of New Onset Heart Failure in Older Persons: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study]]> Objective&mdash; Resistin is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance and exerts direct effects on myocardial cells including hypertrophy and altered contraction. We investigated the association of serum resistin concentrations with risk for incident heart failure (HF) in humans.

    Methods and Results&mdash; We studied 2902 older persons without prevalent HF (age, 73.6&plusmn;2.9 years; 48.1% men; 58.8% white) enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Correlation between baseline serum resistin concentrations (20.3&plusmn;10.0 ng/mL) and clinical variables, biochemistry panel, markers of inflammation and insulin resistance, adipocytokines, and measures of adiposity was weak (all rho &lt;0.25). During a median follow-up of 9.4 years, 341 participants (11.8%) developed HF. Resistin was strongly associated with risk for incident HF in Cox proportional hazards models controlling for clinical variables, biomarkers, and measures of adiposity (HR, 1.15 per 10.0 ng/mL in adjusted model; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.27; P=0.003). Results were comparable across sex, race, diabetes mellitus, and prevalent and incident coronary heart disease subgroups. In participants with available left ventricular ejection fraction at HF diagnosis (265 of 341; 77.7%), association of resistin with HF risk was comparable for cases with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction.

    Conclusions&mdash; Serum resistin concentrations are independently associated with risk for incident HF in older persons.

    ]]>
    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[Procedural justice in promotion decisions of managerial staff in Malaysia]]> 2012-01-01 <![CDATA[Arabica Coffee Agroindustry Cost Requirement Analysis at Margamulya Coffee Producers Cooperative]]> Background and Objective: The research analyze coffee agribusiness as one of the potential commodity that produced in Margamulya Coffee Producers Cooperative (MCPC) Bandung Regency. The purpose of this research was to explore business linkage between coffee farmers and cooperatives and analyze farming costs and cooperative operating costs on the agro-industry process at Cooperative level. Material and Methods: The research used case study and analyzed by value chain mapping and Porter Model approach to analyzed Arabica coffee agroindustry cost requirement. Results: The MCPC, which consists of 140 farmers, focus its business process on processing and marketing sub-systems, while, the farmers concentrate its business on farm sub-systems. Processed cherries in the form of green beans and roasted bean has been exported, with constituted 80 and 20%, respectively, while grounded bean sold to other market destinations, such as e-commerce and cafes around Bandung. Based on Porter Cost Analysis, production cost on coffee plant maintenance at farmer level was IDR3,849 per tree per year. The most significant cost proportion was farmer operation cost, which used for fertilization cost, plant maintenance, pest eradication and plant depreciation, with 41.57%. In Cooperatives level, the cost of production per year was IDR4, 235, 675, 207 and the largest cost proportion was purchasing cost of cherry and grain (horn skin) raw materials (accounted for 89.72%). Conclusion: Farmers were suppliers of raw materials for the business of MCPC in the form of cherry coffee which was then processed into green bean, roasted beans and ground beans. Both farmers, processing farmers and cooperatives require the largest fees for primary activities directly related to their business, not for management strengthening or technology development activities.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Effect of Pre- and Post-hatch Thermal Conditioning on Productive Performance, Some Metabolic Hormones and Breast Muscles Growth of Broilers Chicks]]> Background and Objective: Manipulating the incubation temperature, particularly during the late stage of embryonic development can strongly affect the performance of hatching chicks at later ages. This study was conducted to evaluate the influences of thermal conditioning during embryonic development and at an early age post-hatching on growth performance, metabolic hormones and the skeletal muscle profile of broiler chicks. Materials and Methods: A total of 510 hatching broiler breeder eggs were obtained from Cobb-500 broiler breeder flock at 48 weeks of age. At embryonic day 16 (E16) post candling and infertile exclusion, the eggs were randomly divided into two main groups, each of 240 eggs. The first group was set at optimal incubation conditions (T0), while the second (T1) was exposed to thermal conditioning (TC) at 39.5&plusmn;0.1&deg;C for 5 h/day at E16, E17 and E18. On day 4 post-hatching the (T0 and T1) groups were each randomly sub-divided into two sub-groups. One sub-group of each main group was exposed in a controlled chamber to TC at 38.0&plusmn;0.1&deg;C and 42.0% RH for 5 h/day through the 4th, 5th and 6th day of age, while the other sub-group was kept under optimal brooding conditions, resulting in four final sub-groups, T0T0 (optimal incubation and brooding conditions), T1T0 (embryonic TC), T0T1 (post hatch TC) and T1T1 (pre- and post-hatch TC), all were reared up to the age of 42 days. Data on growth performance, metabolic hormone concentrations and histomorphometric measurements of the myocytes of the pectoral muscles were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that all the TC groups, especially T1T1 had higher (p&lt;0.01) growth and carcass performance than the non TC group (T0T0). With pre- and postnatal TC, whether separately or in combination, the IGF-I level was increased, T4 was reduced, while the T3 level did not change significantly at 42 days. In addition, the major pectoralis muscles of T1T0 and T1T1 chicks possessed greater number and histometric measurements of myocytes compared to those of the other groups. Conclusion: Pre- and postnatal TC both separately or in combination could enhance the productive performance and breast muscle development of broiler chicks.]]> 2018-04-01 <![CDATA[Feed Intake and Nutrient Digestibility of Konkan Kanyal Goats Fed Finger Millet Straw Supplemented With Varying Levels of Dried Poultry Dropping Based Diets]]> Background and Objective: Crop residues are coarse, high-fibre, low-protein and low-digestibility roughages, they play an important role as filler and have some value as a energy source for feeding ruminant animals provided they are adequately supplemented. This present study was conducted to study the effects of dried poultry dropping based diets on the feed intake and nutrient digestibility of konkan kanyal goats fed finger millet straw. Materials and Methods: Thirty konkan kanyal goats aged above 12 months weighing 14.00-14.67 kg were used in a randomized block design (RBD) experiment. The experimental goats were randomly assigned to 5 treatments (TI-T5). T1 was goats fed with 0% dried poultry droppings based diets (DPDBD), T2 was fed with 20% dried poultry droppings based diets (DPDBD), T3 was fed with 40% dried poultry droppings based diets (DPDBD), T4 was fed with 60% dried poultry droppings based diets (DPDBD), T5 was fed with 80% dried poultry droppings based diets (DPDBD). Feed intake was monitored, digestibility coefficient was calculated. All data originating from the study were analysed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure of SAS. Means were separated with the use of least significant difference (LSD) test of the same package. Results: Mean feed intake was higher in treatment groups supplemented with dried poultry droppings based diet T2 (666.84), T3 (780.75), T4 (780.48), T5 (716.00), compared to the control treatment group T1 (588.58). Nutrient digestibility coefficient of the experimental animals was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher in treatment group supplemented with 40% DPDBD (T3) for all the parameters measured compared to all other treatment groups. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that feeding of dried poultry droppings based diets up to 80% to Konkan Kanyal goats consuming finger millet straw as basal diet would give satisfactorily performance, however, superior performance was observed at 40% inclusion, therefore, it is recommended to include the dried poultry droppings at 40% in the diet of the animals for better improved performance.]]> 2017-05-01 <![CDATA[Dielectric Relaxation Analysis of Chemical Solid Electrolyte Lithium Aluminum Titanium Phosphate]]> Background and Objective: The study of relaxation and ionic conductivity behavior of conducting materials comes to be a significant area of research interest due to their potential application in electronic devices. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dielectric relaxation property of lithium aluminum titanium phosphate Li1.5Ti1.5 (PO4)3 with NASICON-type structure. Materials and Methods: The material was prepared by conventional solid state technique, while characterization was carried out using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) analysis technique. The structure and phase composition of the material was indicated by XRD analysis. Temperature and frequency dependence of AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation behavior were obtained at different temperatures from 30-280&deg;C within the frequency range of 40 Hz to 1 MHz. Results: The AC conductivity was observed to be frequency-independent in the low frequency region and frequency-dependent at higher frequency region (10 KHz to 1 MHz). For dielectric permittivity analysis, the dielectric constant &#949;&#146; and dielectric loss &#949;&#148; were found to increase at low frequency and decrease as frequency increased at all temperatures. The calculated AC conductivity of 6.61&times;10&#150;4 (&#937;m)&#150;1 was observed at room temperature (30&deg;C). The relaxation energy (Ea) of 0.21 eV was obtained from electrical modulus formalism. Conclusion: The synthesized sample Li1.5Ti1.5Al0.5 (PO4)3 indicated two relaxation processes, in each relaxation the peaks shifted to higher frequency as the measuring temperature increased.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of <I>Cocos nucifera</I> Nut]]> Background and Objective: Cocos nucifera nut is widely consumed in different forms by indigenes of many countries. It is used in preparation of some drinks and oil. Cocos nucifera nut is believed to have many potential nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses. This study evaluated the proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Cocos nucifera nut. Materials and Methods: The Cocos nucifera nut was bought in Wukari, Nigeria. It was sun-dried and pulverized. The proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition were analyzed using AOAC method, AAS and GC-MS, respectively. Results: The results showed the abundance (%) of the proximate parameters evaluated to be in dry matter&gt;Carbohydrates&gt;crude fiber&gt;lipids&gt;protein&gt;moisture&gt; ash order. The results of mineral analysis showed the amount of potassium, magnesium and sodium to be higher than other minerals evaluated in Cocos nucifera nut. The abundance (ppm) of the minerals evaluated were recorded in potassium&gt;magnesium&gt;sodium&gt;calcium&gt;iron&gt;phosphorus&gt;zinc&gt;chromium &gt;manganese&gt;copper order. There were wide range of phytochemicals detected in ethanolic extract of coconut which possess important industrial, medicinal, physiological and antibiotic properties. Conclusion: The results established that coconut is a good source of energy and could play immunological, physiological, nutritional and pharmacological roles.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Correlation Between Soluble Transferrin Receptor Versus Haemoglobin Concentration, Transferrin Saturation and Serum Ferritin Levels Following Repeated Blood Donations in Nigeria]]> Background: Soluble serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) is an index of erythropoietic activity and it is a useful test to diagnose iron deficiency anaemia. In this study, the levels of sTfR and other iron-related parameters and the association with each other were evaluated. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-four subjects comprising five groups were recruited into this study, that is, 35 (19.0%) of control group, 32 (17.4%) of first, 35 (19.0%) of second, 41 (22.3%) of third and 41 (22.3%) of fourth time blood donors, within the age range of 18-49 years. Iron-related parameters namely; haemoglobin concentration (Hb), transferrin saturation (TS), serum iron (SI) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined using the photometric method, while serum ferritin level (SF) and serum transferrin receptor level (STfR) were determined using enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: STfR correlated negatively with haemoglobin concentration (p&lt;0.05), transferrin saturation, serum iron and serum ferritin levels (p&lt;0.01), while sTfR correlated positively with TIBC in 184 male blood donors (p&lt;0.01). Based on the frequency of blood donation, STfR correlated negatively with Hb [fourth time donors], with SI [third and fourth (p&lt;0.01) time donors], with TS [fourth and third time donors], with SF [third (p&lt;0.05) and fourth (p&lt;0.05) time donors] and positively with TIBC. Conclusion: These results suggested that the level of sTfR may be a useful indicator of iron deficiency in blood donors and should be considered with another test as a criterion especially in donors donating three and four times within a year.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[<I>In silico</I> Molecular Docking and ADME/Tox Study on Benzoxazole Derivatives Against Inosine 5&#146;-Monophosphate Dehydrogenase]]> Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is a microscopic parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis in human. Accessible medications to treat cryptosporidiosis are ineffective and there is yet no immunization against C. parvum. So there is an urgent need to develop a suitable synthetic drug from available databases for suitable targets using computer aided drug designing and quantitative structure activity relationship. Present study was conducted to screen the best compound suitable for binding 5-Monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) target having optimum binding energy. Materials and Methods: In this regards, 38 benzoxazole derivatives were screened from PubChem compound database and docked with inosine 5-Monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) of Cryptosporidium parvum using the program AutoDock 4.2 from docked compound. Results: Four best predicted compounds CID 649646, CID 1318080, CID782217, CID1385213 with optimal binding energies -9.48, -9.39, -9.07 and -9.13 kcal moL&#150;1 were found with IMPDH, respectively. The biological activity of docked compounds in terms of pIC50 was predicted based on 2D QSAR model built in our previously published work. The docked complex structures were optimized by molecular dynamics simulation with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD and evaluated the stability of complex structures by calculating RMSD. In silico ADME/Tox properties of best predicted derivatives of IMPDH were evaluated. Conclusion: The screened compounds showed satisfactory results for oral administration. Compounds have HIA in the range of well absorbed compounds and value in standard range. Skin permeability of derivatives showed negative values. Derivatives lightly bind to plasma proteins. The Ames test showed compounds were mutagenic and carcinogenicity showed negative value in mouse and positive value in rat.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Establishing the Safety of Powder Henna Hair Colour Through Identification of Bandrowski's Base by HPLC Method]]> Background and Objective: The p-phenylenediamine (PPD) used as a coloring agent in hair colour and it is known to be allergic due to formation of trimer Bandrowski&#146;s base. At favorable condition the p-phenylenediamine molecule convert in to dimer and trimer configuration, trimer configuration is called as a Bandrowski's Base. The objective of study was identification of Bandrowski&#146;s Base through the HPLC estimation. This estimation will helpful to find out the safety aspects of henna based hair colours. Estimate the Bandrowski&#146;s Base formation with various pH and it help to draw a optimum pH range for the Bandrowski&#146;s Base formation and prevent the formation with adjusted the pH range. Therefore, main objective of the study was formulating the safer henna based hair colour without the formation of sensitive potential of Bandrowski&#146;s Base and develop the safer henna based hair colour for the end user. Materials and Methods: Bandrowski&#146;s Base (BB) was synthesized by the method described by Ritter and Schmitz. BB base formation depends upon the pH condition (&gt;10.0), high alkaline and hydrogen peroxide concentration. Various concentrations of standard PPD and BB base injected and identified the retention time. Samples are kept injected at 24 and 48 h time interval interest to monitor the BB base formation and PPD self -coupling. Results: In this combination of standard materials of PPD and BB standard injected and the peaks showed the different standard retention time, PPD eluted at 2.352 min. Retention time and BB base eluted at 4.696 min. Addition of resorcinol plays a crucial role to prevent the BB base formation. Quinone-diimine react with coupler resorcinol to form the indophenol complex (green component) further it under goes coupling with PPD or resorcinol or co-oxidation coupling it forms a poly indophenol complex. Conclusion: Henna based hair color with pH 10-12.0 with 30 min developmental time does not contribute the formation of Bandrowski Base. However, henna based hair colour products pH fall between 7.0-8.0, it further confirms that there is no BB formation and safe to use. No evidence for the formation of Bandrowski base after 24 h with the treatment of higher ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.]]> 2017-01-01 <![CDATA[Reproductive Biology of Female Bilih Fish (<I>Mystacoleucus padangensis </I>Bleeker 1852) in Naborsahan River Toba Lake, North Sumatera, Indonesia]]> Background and Objective: The study of reproductive biology of bilih fish (Mystacoleucus padangensis) has been conducted for one year in Naborsahan River, Toba Lake, North Sumatra. The aim of this study was to examine the reproduction characteristics of female bilih fish. Methodology: Sampling of fish was carried out at six stations determined based on the river characteristics and bilih fish habitat using bag net and cast net. Gonadosomatic index value varied from 0.12-31.70% with an average ranging between 5.70-9.16%. Results: Observation of 432 mature ovarians showed that the fecundity of bilih fish ranging between 8683-17824 eggs. Directly-measured oocyte diameter ranged from 70.6-877.8 &mu;m, while histological-measured oocyte diameter ranged from 60.2-747.3 &mu;m. Conclusion: Based on morphological and histological examinations, the gonad developmental stages of female bilih fish (ovarians) can be divided into five stages: Stage 1 (Immature), Stage II (Pre mature), Stage III (Maturing and Mature), Stage IV (Pre spent) and Stage V (Spent). Bilih fish spawning patterns are partial and the spawning peak occurred in August-September and February-March.]]> 2016-01-3-01 <![CDATA[Spatial Distribution of Electrical Infrastructures: Impact of Urban Sprawl in Lubumbashi, DR Congo]]> 2016-01-01 <![CDATA[The Role of ICT in Improving Teaching and Learning in Nigerian Universities]]> 2018-03-01 <![CDATA[Neuroticism Indifference to Brand Familiarity and Social Influence Towards Purchase Intention in Social Networking Services (SNS) in Malaysia]]> Background and Objective: The usefulness of social networking services (SNS) to businesses has remained under scrutiny. Nevertheless, one valid defend for SNS worth is its influence on users&#146; purchase intention on product and services. Therefore, it is vital to examine the factors that influence purchase intention in SNS for marketers to better plan and strategize marketing plans. Due to sparse evidence on SNS viability for businesses in Malaysia, this study was conducted to examine the effects of social influence and brand familiarity in SNS on purchase intention, while accounting for the mediating role that personality trait played in SNS. Materials and Methods: About 369 SNS members were surveyed to test their purchase intention based upon opinions of friends, acquaintances and familiarity of brands. This study adopts Stimulus Organism Response (SOR) model and personality traits profiled from Big Five Factor model. The structural model fit and hypothesis testing are validated using structural equation modeling-AMOS 20. Results: The results indicate that social influence and brand familiarity significantly and directly affect SNS users&#146; purchase intention. However, result shows that SNS users with particular personality trait, neuroticism, were neither influenced by friends, acquaintances, nor brand familiarity in intention to purchase. These findings are aligned with neurotic personality traits, which are portrayed as highly sensitive and anxious in facing external situations. They need more than superficial interactions to affect decision making. Conclusion: SNS could increase sales via endorsements, social media engagement and branding activities in SNS, while generating alternative advertising for different types of personality traits.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Roselle Responsiveness to Application of Certain Bio and Mineral Fertilizers in Relation to Plant Parasitic Nematodes]]> Background and Objective: Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. sabdariffa is considered one of the most important medical plants all over the world. The application of different strains of bio fertilizers can help to control parasitic nematodes and to reduce the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers and enhance the plant growth to decrease the production cost and environmental risk. The objective of this study was to maximize bio fertilizer and urea for controlling plant-parasitic nematode infected rosella in relation to improve growth and active constituents. Methodology: Field experiments were carried out to explore the role of three bio fertilizers: Azotobacter chroococcum; Bacillus polymyxa and Pseudomonas fluorescens singly and in combination with different doses of urea (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg/feddan) in the control programs of plant parasitic nematodes infected roselle plants (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in relation to its growth characters under field conditions during two successive seasons. The experiment included 20 treatments, singly and combined between five levels of urea and different strains of bio fertilizers. The obtained data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) one way direction with LSD 5% using CoStat Software, Version 6.4 (2008). Results: All tested treatments significantly at 5% reduced soil and root population of the plant parasitic nematodes and increased the growth, yield and chemical constituents of roselle plants compared with untreated control. The highest reduction percentages in parasitic nematode population (84.3 and 85.9%) in the two successive seasons, respectively, occurred at the application of; A. chroococcum+60 kg urea/feddan. In addition, effectiveness of this combined gave a better enhancement in plant height (218.80 and 231.44 cm), fresh weight of whole plant (1227.22 and 1264.18 g) and seed yield (676.89 and 661.06 kg/feddan), in the two successive seasons, respectively, compared with untreated control. Conclusion: Finally, it could be concluded that, the best conformity of urea plus bio-fertilizers are A. chroococcum+60 kg urea/feddan. Which descendingly effective on parasitic nematodes reduction and roselle plant growth characters.]]> 2017-01-01 <![CDATA[Applications of <I>Pseudomnas fluorescens</I> P60 in Controlling Basal Stem Rot (<I>Sclerotium rolfsii </I> Sacc.) on Dragon Fruit Seedlings]]> Background and Objective: At the beginning of planting dragon fruit, seedlings often have decay at the base of the stem caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii) Sacc. This disease is very detrimental for dragon fruit farmers. An alternative control of this disease may also use biological antagonistic microbes. The aim of this research was to evaluate Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) P60 against Sclerotium rolfsii in dragon fruit seedlings and its plant growth-promoting ability. Methodology: Experiments were conducted for the dragon fruit plantations of Agrowisata Kusumo Wanadri at Glagah Village, Temon Subdistrict, KulonProgo Regency. There were five treatments which includes: 1: Untreated control, 2: P. fluorescens P60 as a drench, 3: P. fluorescens P60 as a soak, 4: P. fluorescens P60 as a soak and drench and 5: Benomyl as a soak and drench. There were six replicates of each treatment and arranged in a randomized complete block design. The soak and drench were repeated six times, each for 10 min, 30 days after planting. Following the treatments, the following parameters were evaluated such as disease incidence, late populations of S. rolfsii, plant fresh weight, root length, number of shoots, the shoot length and qualitative phenolic compound contents. Data were analyzed by F-test to determine the effect of treatment. Results: This study results showed that the use of P. fluorescens P60 effectively suppress stem rot caused by S. rolfsii on dragon fruit seedlings, by inhibiting the incubation period as 29.76%, lower the disease intensity as 66.65%, suppress the disease incidence of 46.14%, lower late sclerotia population of 74.79% and increase the content of phenolic compounds qualitatively. The application of P. fluorescens P60 was most appropriate to the nursery dragon fruit cuttings material by soaking in a solution of P. fluorescens P60 for 10 min. Conclusion: The use of P. fluorescens P60 can promote the growth of dragon fruit seedlings, covering the difference in seedlings fresh weight of 52.87%, root length as 40.09%, number of shoots as 34.76% and long shoots as 8.99%.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Characteristic of Vascular Bundles and Morphology of <I>Gigantochloa apus</I> (J.A. and J.H. Schulltes) Kurz Culm]]> Background and Objective: Bamboo culm was composed of internodes and nodes. Anatomically, bamboo culm was composed of vascular bundles (VB) and parenchymal base tissue. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphology features of culm and VB of bamboo Gigantochloa apus. Materials and Methods: The sample was taken from each internode of bamboo. The morphology of bamboo culm was determined by measuring the length, diameter and wall thickness. VB characterization was obtained through observation on each internode of bamboo culm. Results: The results showed that bamboo culm had internode length and inner diameter that varied from the bottom, increased at a certain height then decreased toward the top. The size of outer diameter and wall thickness of bamboo culm tended to decrease from bottom to top. VB on each internode was spread unevenly where the distance between VB looked more widened from the outer layer to the inner layer. VB distribution in the cross section had a crossing pattern (alternate). VB varied in shape and size from outer layer to inner layer of bamboo culm. The VB type on an internode of G. apus bamboo culm also showed variations where there was VB in type III only and some also were in type (III and IV) in each internode. Conclusion: The morphology of the bamboo culm was influenced by the morphology of young shoot. VB of bamboo G. apus spread unevenly with varying sizes, shapes and type from the outer layer to the inner layer.]]> 2018-03-01 <![CDATA[Effects of <I>Phyllanthus niruri</I> and <I>Curcuma longa</I> on Liver and Renal Function of <I>Escherichia coli</I> Infected Layers]]> Background and Objective: Colibacillosis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli ) and can cause economic losses in the poultry industry. One of the failures to overcome colibacillosis is the occurrence of bacterial resistance to some antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the effect of Phyllanthus niruri and Curcuma longa on the function of liver and renal layer chicken infected E. coli. Methodology: Fifty layers (DOC) were used in this study. After having infected E. coli, the layers were grouped into 5 and labeled with groups A, B, C, D and E. Group A was those who were treated with Curcuma longa 300 mg kg&#150;1, group B was treated with Phyllanthus niruri 500 mg kg&#150;1, group C was treated with equal dosage (1:1) of Curcuma longa and Phyllanthus niruri, group D was treated with Curcuma longa and Phyllanthus niruri whose dosages were 2: 1 and group E was without herbal treatment. Blood and organ samples were collected at 3 weeks post-herbal-treatment. Blood sample were used for examination of Alanine Transaminase (ALT) and creatinine concentration. Liver and renal samples were for histological examination. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test. Results: Concentration of group B ALT was significantly different with group A, D and E (p&lt;0.05). Group A had the highest ALT concentration i.e., 23.77&plusmn;0.44 IU L&#150;1 and Group E (without herbal treatment) had the highest creatinine concentration i.e., 0.38&plusmn;0.02 mg dL&#150;1. Creatinine concentration of group B was significantly different with all treatment groups (p&lt;0.05). Histological observation of liver organs of group A showed infiltration of heterophile cells in the kiernan trigonum areas. Histological observation of renal organs showed that all groups were normal and there was no pathology. Conclusion: Phyllanthus niruri does not cause toxic effects for 21 days, so it can be alternative in the treatment of infectious disease of diarrhea caused by E. coli.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Root&#146;s Supply Response for Smallholder Farmers Supplying Cassava to Commercial Starch Processors in Nigeria]]> Background and Objective: This study analyzes the roots&#146; supply capacity and response for smallholder cassava farmers supplying commercial starch processors in Nigeria. Among the specific objectives were to identify the key production and marketing challenges and examine the factors driving roots&#146; flow from farmers to processing factories. Materials and Methods: A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 96 farmers from the enlisted clusters in eight cassava-growing states. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and multivariate regression techniques. Results: Initial characterization revealed that 22.9% of all farmers were women, 32.3% into full-time farming and 97.9% married. About 80.0% of the farmers&#146; total produce was sold to various markets but only 61.1% of farmers supplied part of their produce to the starch factories. Yield (p&lt;0.01), experience (p&lt;0.01), farm size (p&lt;0.01), commercialization (p&lt;0.01), varieties type (p&lt;0.01), factory gate price (p&lt;0.01) and training (p&lt;0.01) had significant positive influence on marketed surplus while the influence of open market price (p&lt;0.01) was negative. Production cost, transport and logistics, dearth of fertilizer, labour and capital were the key production challenges while transport cost, distance and small size of markets were the key marketing challenges. Conclusion: Policies and programmes capable of promoting high yield and output, targeting farmers with proven experience, large farm sizes and demonstrated will to commercialize and offering competitive factory gate prices were ways of increasing flow of roots to starch processing factories. The significant negative effect of the open market price implied that inasmuch as the starch processors&#146; price remained less attractive and competitive vis-&agrave;-vis the price elsewhere, the problem of roots&#146; leakage would persist and the factories would continue to operate below capacity. The study recommended provision of best farm management package of practices including improved cuttings, regular training and retraining, agro-inputs&#146; credit, relevant extension and monitoring support services to promote farmers&#146; efficiency and roots&#146; flow. As big-time investors, the starch processors should show more commitment to cassava value chain development through direct assistance to farmers in opening of lands, purchasing or leasing of tractors and subsidizing transport facilities especially during harvesting, so as to curtail the farmers&#146; tendency to divert roots to alternative markets.]]> 2017-01-01 <![CDATA[Employee Engagement as a Mediator Between Transformational Leadership and Employee Performance]]> Background and Objective: Transformational leadership and employee engagement have been much studied in the private industry but very little has been done in the public sector. This study was conducted in the Malaysian public sector to discover its impact on employee performance. This study aimed to develop a conceptual model and to examine employee engagement as a mediator between transformational leadership and employee performance in the public sector of a developing country. Materials and Methods: The data were collected through a survey of 200 employees in a public sector organization in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample size was determined according to the sample size at the level of confidence of 95% and significant level of 0.05. Stratified random sampling technique was used to achieve the objectives of this research. The survey instruments used in this study consisted of 34 items relating to 3 constructs namely employee engagement (EE, 11 items), employee performance (EP, 13 items) and transformational leadership (TR, 10 items). Results: Results of the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that transformational leadership was positively related to employee performance. In addition, the analysis also showed that employee engagement fully mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance. Conclusion: This study suggested that policy makers should introduce organizational interventions that encapsulate both transformational leadership and employee engagement to enhance employee performance in the public sector.]]> 2018-03-01 <![CDATA[Ramie Fibre Processing and Value Addition]]> 2017-01-01 <![CDATA[Opposite haptic and visual induction effects observed with Titchener's {perp}]]> Nineteen psychology undergraduates were requested to "grasp" the lines of a computer image of Titchener's with a thumb and index finger pincer grip immediately after the line to be grasped had been indicated and the whole figure extinguished. The hand remained visible. Lines were of three different lengths (6.5, 7, and 7.5 cm), and s were presented at eight different orientations (rotated in steps of 45&deg;). Lines also had to be judged longer, shorter, or equal, relative to one another. Haptically, subjects responded correctly to the s' undivided lines, but scaled their responses to the divided ones according to the undivided ones. Categorical judgments yielded comparable psychometric functions for both kinds of lines, with a significant shift of points of subjective equality from a difference in length between lines of 9.8% to 13.5% when the divided or the undivided line was target. Haptic sensitivity, therefore, appears to be constrained by context, whereas the classical "visual illusion," associated with Titchener's , may be regarded a mere decisional criterion shift.

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    2009-05-01
    <![CDATA[Modeling Efficient Radio Resource Allocation Scheme for MTC and HTC over Mobile Wireless Networks]]> Background and Objective: MTC traffic cannot access radio channels reserved for HTC traffic even if the channels are idle and vice versa which leads to the underutilization of the radio channels. Therefore, the objective of this study was to model an improved channel allocation scheme, where portions of the radio channels are reserved for each of MTC and HTC traffic but each traffic can access channels reserved for the other traffic when not in use. Methodology: To overcome the above challenge, this study proposed a channel allocation scheme to increase the channel utilization. The proposed channel allocation scheme was then analyzed basing on the blocking probability. Queuing theory was employed to derive expressions for blocking probability of MTC and HTC traffic. The performance of the improved radio channel allocation scheme was compared to the channel allocation scheme where MTC traffic cannot access channels reserved for HTC traffic when not in use and vice versa using MATLAB. Results: Numerical results showed that the improved radio channel allocation scheme reduces the blocking probability of packets which in turn improves the system performance. It was further noted that the threshold values of channels set for HTC and MTC traffic have an effect on the blocking probability. In addition, channel utilization and blocking probability are observed to increase with increase in arrival rate and packet sizes. Conclusion: The improved channel allocation scheme reduces the blocking probability of traffic which in turn improves system performance.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Oil Price Fluctuations and Economic Growth in Nigeria (Evidence From Granger Causality Test)]]> Objective: This study examined the relationship between oil price and economic growth in Nigeria using annual time series data for the period 1974-2014 sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin, OPEC and world bank for the year 2014. Methodology: Non-probability sampling method in the form of availability sampling technique has been applied in selecting the number of years covering this study. Dickey-fuller generalised least squares unit roots test has been applied in testing for stationarity of the variables and granger causality test adopted for testing the direction of causality. Results: The findings indicate that, there is no long-run relationship among the variables. However, granger causality test indicate a significant unidirectional causality running from oil price to economic growth in the short run. In addition, there is a significant positive unidirectional causality running from human capital to economic growth in Nigeria. Also, the findings indicate a significant positive unidirectional causality running from oil price to total exports in Nigeria. Conclusion: The study therefore, recommends stability of oil price in order to achieve high economic growth in the short run, substantial amount of government budgetary allocation should be directed towards educational sector in order to strengthen economic growth through human capital in the short run. Finally, measures to maintain higher oil price and stability in the world market should be adopted so as to increase the volume of oil export which will eventually lead to increase in total exports.]]> 2017-01-01 <![CDATA[A standardized set of 260 pictures for Modern Greek: Norms for name agreement, age of acquisition, and visual complexity]]> The appropriate selection of both pictorial and linguistic experimental stimuli requires a previous language-specific standardization process of the materials across different variables. Considering that such normative data have not yet been collected for Modern Greek, in this study normative data for the color version of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion &amp; Pourtois, 2004) were collected from 330 native Greek adults. Participants named the pictures (providing name agreement ratings) and rated them for visual complexity and age of acquisition. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Greek language processing and constitute the first picture normative study for this language. The picture norms from this study and previous ones may be downloaded from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

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    2009-02-01
    <![CDATA[Reproductive skew and the evolution of conflict resolution: a synthesis of transactional and tug-of-war models]]> The formation of animal societies is a major transition in evolution. It is challenging to understand why societies are stable, given the reproductive conflicts inherent within them. Reproductive skew theory provides a compelling explanation for how and why reproductive conflicts are resolved. Indeed, some have suggested that skew theory represents a general theory of social evolution. Lamentably, skew theory is composed of many independent models, with the generality of each model being restricted by its assumptions. Here, we tackle this problem, using Hamilton's rule to predict the conditions under which assumptions of major classes of skew models (transactional and tug-of-war) apply. First, building on transactional models, we define the amount of reproduction that individuals can negotiate based on the threat of group dissolution (the "outside option") and determine conditions under which groups will be stable (free of group dissolution). Second, building on tug-of-war models, we define the amount of reproduction that individuals can negotiate based on the threat of costly competition (the "inside option") and determine conditions under which groups will be tranquil (free of costly competition). Finally, synthesizing transactional and tug-of-war approaches, we determine the conditions under which individuals will negotiate based on outside rather than inside options. Simply, individuals will negotiate using their outside option when it is greater than their inside option and vice versa. We conduct a post hoc test of all predictions in one simple animal society - the clown anemonefish, Amphiprion percula. The product is a more general and demonstrably testable model of reproductive skew, which should help to refocus the debate surrounding the utility of reproductive skew theory as a general theory of social evolution.

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    2009-03-01
    <![CDATA[Antimony: a modular model definition language]]> Motivation: Model exchange in systems and synthetic biology has been standardized for computers with the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and CellML, but specialized software is needed for the generation of models in these formats. Text-based model definition languages allow researchers to create models simply, and then export them to a common exchange format. Modular languages allow researchers to create and combine complex models more easily. We saw a use for a modular text-based language, together with a translation library to allow other programs to read the models as well.

    Summary: The Antimony language provides a way for a researcher to use simple text statements to create, import, and combine biological models, allowing complex models to be built from simpler models, and provides a special syntax for the creation of modular genetic networks. The libAntimony library allows other software packages to import these models and convert them either to SBML or their own internal format.

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    2009-12-01
    <![CDATA[Urinary &#945;-GST and &#960;-GST for prediction of dialysis requirement or in-hospital death in established acute kidney injury]]> Context: Urinary &#945;-glutathione S-transferase (&#945;-GST) and &#960;-glutathione S-transferase (&#960;-GST) are promising proximal and distal tubular leakage markers for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI). Objective: To examine the performance of these markers for predicting the composite of dialysis requirement or in-hospital death in patients with an established diagnosis of AKI. Materials and methods: Prospective cohort study of 245 adults with AKI. A single urinary &#945;-GST and &#960;-GST measurement was obtained at time of nephrology consultation. Results: Overall, urinary &#960;-GST performed better than &#945;-GST for prediction of dialysis requirement (AUC 0.59 vs. 0.56), and the composite outcome (AUC 0.58 vs. 0.56). In subgroup analyses, &#960;-GST displayed better discrimination for prediction of dialysis requirement in patients with baseline eGFR &lt;60&#8201;mL/min/1.73 m2 (AUC 0.61) and oliguria (AUC 0.72). Similarly, &#945;-GST performed better in patients with stage-1 (AUC 0.66) and stage-2 AKI (AUC 0.80). Conclusions: In patients with an established diagnosis of AKI, a single urinary &#960;-GST measurement performed better than &#945;-GST at predicting dialysis requirement or death, but neither marker had good prognostic discrimination.]]> 2011-08-01 <![CDATA[Marginal log-linear parameterization of conditional independence models]]> Models defined by a set of conditional independence restrictions play an important role in statistical theory and applications, especially, but not only, in graphical modelling. In this paper we identify a subclass of these consisting of hierarchical marginal log-linear models, as defined by Bergsma &amp; Rudas (2002a). Such models are smooth, which implies the applicability of standard asymptotic theory and simplifies interpretation. Furthermore, we give a marginal log-linear parameterization and a minimal specification of the models in the subclass, which implies the applicability of standard methods to compute maximum likelihood estimates and simplifies the calculation of the degrees of freedom of chi-squared statistics to test goodness-of-fit. The utility of the results is illustrated by applying them to block-recursive Markov models associated with chain graphs.

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    2010-04-01
    <![CDATA[Oxalic Acid as the Main Molecule Produced by <I>Trichoderma asperellum</I> MG323528 Fermented on Corn Stover Based Medium]]> Background and Objective: Organic acids have several pharmaceutical, food, agricultural and medical applications. Corn stover represents a serious environmental problem. The present study investigated the bio processing of such readily available low-cost biomass with microorganism into valuable organic acids that expected to neutralize the negative impact on the environment and minimize the production costs. Materials and Methods: A novel cellulolytic Trichoderma asperellum MG323528 was selected as a new corn stover decomposer that could transform it into various bio-products. The fungus was incorporated in corn stover-based medium for the production of organic acids. The Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to maximize the total organic acids production especially oxalic acid. Results: The optimum composition of solid-state fermentation medium was found to contain17.83 mg P from rock phosphate, 5.61 mg N from (NH4)2SO4 and 9.84 mg MgSO4&#8226;7H2O per 1 g of corn stover, yielding a total of 209.11&plusmn;1.20 mmol organic acids. According to the HPLC screening, the main organic acids detected in the fermented corn stover was oxalic acid, representing about 78% of the total organic acids, in addition to minor amounts of citric, formic, salicylic and ascorbic acids. Conclusion: This kind of homo-fermentation could be considered for large-scale production of oxalic acid on an economic medium of CS using the promising T. asperellum MG323528 strain.]]> 2018-02-01 <![CDATA[Transtracheal jet ventilation in 50 patients with severe airway compromise and stridor]]> Background

    Management of the airway is difficult in patients with pharyngeal or laryngeal pathology caused by malignancy, extensive surgery, or radiotherapy scarring, particularly when undergoing pharyngolaryngeal surgery. Tracheal intubation, with or without fibreoptic guidance, is often impractical because of the severe glottic stenosis and primary tracheostomy under local anaesthesia has been the preferred technique. However, complication rates as high as 30% have been reported after primary tracheostomy and there is the potential for long-term morbidity. High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) has several advantages over other techniques in the management of the difficult airway and can be delivered by supraglottic and infraglottic routes. To date, no large series has described the use of transtracheal HFJV (TTHFJV) in adult patients with stridor and critical airway obstruction.

    Methods

    We report a prospective, descriptive audit of the safe use of TTHFJV in patients with severe airway compromise and stridor undergoing pharyngolaryngeal surgery (50 consecutive procedures in 44 patients).

    Results

    TTHFJV was successful in all 50 cases. There were no major complications and the incidence of minor complications was 20% with no subsequent morbidity.

    Conclusions

    We attribute this low incidence to the use of an automated jet ventilator with airway pressure monitoring and control, and the alteration of ventilator parameters by an experienced anaesthetist.

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    2011-01-01
    <![CDATA[Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies rapidly induce {alpha}4-integrin-dependent glomerular neutrophil adhesion]]> Patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) frequently develop severe vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Although ANCAs, particularly antimyeloperoxidase (anti-MPO), have been shown to promote leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules, their ability to promote adhesion in the glomerular vasculature is less clear. We used intravital microscopy to examine glomerular leukocyte adhesion induced by anti-MPO. In mice pretreated with LPS, 50 &micro;g anti-MPO induced LFA-1&ndash;dependent adhesion in glomeruli. In concert with this finding, in mice pretreated with LPS, more than 80% of circulating neutrophils bound anti-MPO within 5 minutes of intravenous administration. However, even in the absence of LPS, more than 40% of circulating neutrophils bound anti-MPO in vivo, a response not seen in MPO&ndash;/&ndash; mice. In addition, a higher dose of anti-MPO (200 &micro;g) induced robust glomerular leukocyte adhesion in the absence of LPS. The latter response was &beta;2-integrin independent, instead requiring the 4-integrin, which was up-regulated on neutrophils in response to anti-MPO. These data indicate that anti-MPO antibodies bind to circulating neutrophils, and can induce glomerular leukocyte adhesion via multiple pathways. Lower doses induce adhesion only after an infection-related stimulus, whereas higher doses are capable of inducing responses in the absence of an additional inflammatory stimulus, via alternative adhesion mechanisms.

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    2009-12-01
    <![CDATA[Seasonal Cycles of Atmospheric Ion and Aerosol Concentrations in an Urban Area]]> 2013-01-01 <![CDATA[Neuropathology of epilepsy and psychosis: the contributions of J.A.N. Corsellis]]> Professor J.A.N. Corsellis, whose life and work is recalled here, gained great insight into the meaning of morphological cerebral aberrations found in neuropsychiatric disease through exact neuropathological investigations of tissue specimens obtained from patients with distinct syndromes. He was a leading authority in the field. We have searched and compiled resources relating to J.A.N. Corsellis&rsquo; life and work, including personal memories from colleagues and data from scientific publications. J.A.N. Corsellis made seminal contributions to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disease; his works substantially added to the understanding of the dementias, schizophrenia and the psychoses, and morphological sequelae of boxing. In seizure disorders, his name is linked to the first description of focal cortical dysplasia and limbic encephalitis, the pathology of status epilepticus and Ammon&rsquo;s horn sclerosis, and the systematic investigation of epilepsy surgery specimens in general. Both his life and work are closely linked to Runwell Hospital, Wickford, Essex and the Maudsley Hospital. During his professional life he established a large brain bank, now known as the Corsellis Collection. J.A.N. Corsellis had significant impact on neuroscience; many of his observations were groundbreaking and are still valid.

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    2010-12-01
    <![CDATA[Anti-Terrorist Laws and the United Kingdom's 'Suspect Muslim Community': A Reply to Pantazis and Pemberton]]> In an article in a recent issue of this journal, Pantazis and Pemberton claim that anti-terrorist laws passed in the United Kingdom in the context of a post-9/11 official political discourse have turned Muslims into a &lsquo;suspect community&rsquo; (Pantazis and Pemberton 2009). Regrettably, this thesis is built on a series of analytical, methodological, conceptual, logical, empirical, evidential and interpretive errors. There is no evidence to support it and a great deal that points in the opposite direction. This reply argues that the &lsquo;suspect community&rsquo; thesis should, therefore, be rejected by social science, public policy and progressive politics in favour of a much more nuanced, multidimensional, accurate and productive account of the relationship between Muslims and the United Kingdom's anti-terrorist laws.

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    2010-06-01
    <![CDATA[Light-scattering characteristics of explanted opacified Aquasense intraocular lenses]]> Aim:

    To study forward light-scattering characteristics of calcified explanted intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Aquasense, Ophthalmic Innovation International Ontario).

    Methods:

    The amount of light scattered by the opacified IOLs was measured using a validated in vitro set-up for angles from 1.7&deg; to 22&deg;. This set-up gives results directly comparable with straylight values as valid for the in vivo situation.

    Results:

    Straylight is highest at large angles and declines steeply approaching 0&deg; angle. This corresponds to the in vivo findings that opacified IOLs cause important visual complaints but have little effect on visual acuity. At 7.5&deg;, log (s) is around 1.8 and 2.9 for the two lenses respectively. This corresponds to 8x and 100x increases in straylight values compared with values in young, normal eyes.

    Conclusion:

    High straylight values caused by opacified IOLs can explain subjective complaints of reduced quality of vision in patients with opacified implants, despite good visual acuity.

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    2009-06-01
    <![CDATA[Exploring Coping Factors amongst Men Who Were Sexually Abused in Childhood]]> Men who were sexually abused in childhood are overrepresented in mental health and other clinical populations. There is heterogeneity in outcomes for such men and a substantial number develop coping strategies that minimise negative consequences of abuse. However, little research has been undertaken with abused men to understand the nature of their coping. This paper reports on one arm of a major study of mental health outcomes for Australian men who are survivors of childhood sexual abuse and presents findings from thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with thirty-nine men, exploring how their coping mechanisms have developed and the nature of the advice for coping they would give to professionals or other survivors. The study found that coping strategies developed adaptively through the life course but clustered into two types: those that are concerned with forms of suppression and denial, which are associated with negative mental health outcomes, and those that involve reframing the abuse, which tend to be associated with more positive outcomes. Implications of the study for practice are consistent with the advice suggested by the men themselves, that they were helped by consistent relationships with others who could provide practical support and inspire hope.

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    2010-08-01
    <![CDATA[Coaches' perspectives on implementing an evidence-informed injury prevention programme in junior community netball]]> Objective

    For effective sports injury prevention, information is needed about the implementation context for interventions. This study describes coaches' feedback on the implementation of an evidence-informed injury prevention programme in community junior netball using coaches' perceptions and the RE&ndash;AIM framework.

    Methods

    A lower-limb injury prevention programme (Down to Earth; D2E), for teaching safe-landing techniques, was delivered to 31 coaches from 31 junior community netball teams in a 1-h workshop. Coaches then delivered a 6-week programme at team training sessions starting in the week before the competition season commenced. 65% of coaches completed a feedback survey 17 weeks after they had delivered the programme.

    Results

    Most (88%) coaches believed that D2E improved their players' ability to perform correct landing techniques in games and that players had retained these improvements over the season. The majority (83%) indicated that an improvement in player athletic attributes was the greatest advantage of D2E, followed by a reduction in injury risk. Identified barriers to implementing D2E were running out of time and very young players finding the drills too difficult. Coaches reported that they needed more ideas for training drills that could be incorporated into their programmes and believed that their own coaching training did not adequately prepare them to implement an injury prevention programme.

    Conclusions

    Although coaches believed that D2E was effective in developing correct landing techniques, some modifications are needed to make it more suitable for younger players and coach education by accreditation courses could be improved to support the implementation of injury prevention programmes.

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    2010-12-01
    <![CDATA[Pluriharmonic maps into outer symmetric spaces and a subdivision of Weyl chambers]]> Burstall and Guest have given a classification of harmonic maps of the 2-sphere with values in Lie groups and inner symmetric spaces. We extend their result to outer symmetric spaces G/K, using the pointed Cartan embedding into G. We show that in this case the number of classes can be reduced from 2r to 2s where r = rank G and s = rank K. Moreover we replace the 2-sphere by a simply connected compact K&auml;hler manifold and &lsquo;harmonic&rsquo; by &lsquo;pluriharmonic&rsquo;.

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    2010-06-01
    <![CDATA[Indicator Species for Oligotrophic Semi-Natural Grasslands in Apuseni Mountains]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Interactive Software Tools for the Study of Specific Biodiversity]]> 2011-02-01 <![CDATA[Comparative Study Concerning the Fattening Performances and Carcass Traits between Norwegian White x Turcana Young Hybrids and Turcana Young Sheep]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[A reply to Amitava Dutt: the role of aggregate demand in the long run]]> 2014-05-01 You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near '' at line 1