The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning <p style="margin: 0 0 18px 0;">Formerly named the International Review of Research in Open and <em>Distance</em> Learning.<br><strong>2016 Impact Factor: 1.734</strong> ©2017 Clarivate Analytics, Journal Citation Reports®</p> <div style="width: 90%; padding: 16px 5%; font-size: 12px; background-color: #f7f7f7; border: 1px solid #c0c0c0;"> <div style="margin-bottom: 9px; font-size: 14px; text-align: center;"><strong>To all our reviewers, thank you for your time, your insight, and your continued contribution to IRRODL in 2018. Best wishes for a happy and healthy 2019!</strong></div> <div style="margin-bottom: 9px;">The 573 names in our 2018 List of Reviewers below comprise those who completed at least one review in 2018. We are very grateful for the contribution of your valuable time and expertise. IRRODL could not be "the leading journal" in our ODL field without you!</div> <div style="font-size: 13px; text-align: center;"><a href="/index.php/irrodl/$$$call$$$/api/file/file-api/download-library-file?libraryFileId=2" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>2018 List of Reviewers</strong></a></div> </div> en-US <p>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution&nbsp;4.0 International Licence. The copyright of all content published in IRRODL is retained by the authors.</p> <p>This copyright agreement and use license ensures, among other things, that an article will be as widely distributed as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific and/or scholarly archive.</p> <p>You are free to</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</li> <li class="show"><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.</li> </ul> <p>The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms below:</p> <ul> <li class="show">&nbsp;<strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a href="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a href="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</li> </ul> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a href="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> (IRRODL Manager) (AU Press) Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:06 -0700 OJS 60 Editorial - Volume 19, Issue 5 Dianne Conrad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:04 -0700 MOOCs and OER in the Global South: Problems and Potential <p class="3">This paper examines the problems and potential of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and Open Education Resources (OER) in the global South. Employing a systematic review of the research into the use of open online learning technologies in Southern contexts, we identify five interrelated themes emerging from the literature: 1) access to the Internet; 2) participant literacies; 3) online pedagogies; 4) the context of content; and 5) the flow of knowledge between North and South. The significance of Southern voice and participation is addressed in the final section, which concludes that on balance, the literature offers a qualified endorsement of the potential and actualities of MOOCs and OER in the global South. The ongoing tendency for the research literature to pay little heed to the agency of the social actors with the most to gain from these innovations is noted, opening up space for further research into the lived experience of online learners in the global South.</p> Monty King, Mark Pegrum, Martin Forsey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:04 -0700 How MOOC-Takers Estimate Learning Success: Retrospective Reflection of Perceived Benefits <p class="3">Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years as a new learning technology. Since MOOCs inception, only limited research has been carried out to address how learners perceive success in MOOCs after course completion.  The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived benefits as the measurement of learning success.  Narrative interviews were conducted with 30 Russian-speaking learners who completed at least one MOOC in full.  By employing text analysis of interview transcripts, we revealed the authentic voices of participants and gained deeper understanding of learners' perceived benefits based on retrospective reflection. The findings of the study indicate that after finishing MOOCs, learners have received tangible and intangible benefits that in general justified their expectations.  University-affiliated students, as well as working professionals, recognized the complementarity of MOOCs, but their assessments were limited to educational tracks. We discovered that taking MOOCs often coincided with the time when an individual was planning to change career, education, or life tracks.  The results of the study and their implications are further discussed, together with practical suggestions for MOOC providers.</p> Svetlana Sablina, Natalia Kapliy, Alexandr Trusevich, Sofia Kostikova ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:04 -0700 Analysing Structured Learning Behaviour in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs): An Approach Based on Process Mining and Clustering <p class="3">The increasing use of digital systems to support learning leads to a growth in data regarding both learning processes and related contexts. Learning Analytics offers critical insights from these data, through an innovative combination of tools and techniques. In this paper, we explore students’ activities in a MOOC from the perspective of personal constructivism, which we operationalized as a combination of learning behaviour and learning progress. This study considers students’ data analyzed as per the MOOC<em> Process Mining: Data Science in Action</em>. We explore the relation between learning behaviour and learning progress in MOOCs, with the purpose to gain insight into how passing and failing students distribute their activities differently along the course weeks, rather than predict students' grades from their activities. Commonly-studied aggregated counts of activities, specific course item counts, and order of activities were examined with cluster analyses, means analyses, and process mining techniques. We found four meaningful clusters of students, each representing specific behaviour ranging from only starting to fully completing the course. Process mining techniques show that successful students exhibit a more steady learning behaviour. However, this behaviour is much more related to actually watching videos than to the timing of activities. The results offer guidance for teachers.</p> Antoine van den Beemt, Joos Buijs, Wil van der Aalst ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:04 -0700 User Consent in MOOCs – Micro, Meso, and Macro Perspectives <p class="3">While many strategies for protecting personal privacy rely on regulatory frameworks, consent, and anonymizing data, they are not always effective. Terms and Conditions often lag behind advances in technology, software, and user behaviours, and consent to use data for a range of unclear purposes may be provided unwittingly. As the commercial market for (student) data expands, so does the number of brokers who move, share and sell data across continents and legislative environments. This paper reviews four Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) providers from different geopolitical and regulatory contexts. It explores how consent to collect and use data is described to potential users, and how that consent applies at micro, meso, and macro levels.</p><p class="3">This paper proposes a need for greater transparency around the implications of users granting consent at the point of registration. Further, it highlights that though MOOC providers have a responsibility to make clear the potential uses and sharing of user data, users themselves should also be more aware and consider how meaningful student agency can be achieved.</p> Mohammad Khalil, Paul Prinsloo, Sharon Slade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:04 -0700 Interactions in MOOCs: The Hidden Part of the Iceberg <p class="3">Interactions that take place between MOOC users outside of discussion forums, and out of the reach of course designers, have received little attention from the scientific community despite their potential influence on learner retention. Based on an online survey, we found that MOOCs are often used as an activity among friends and family, and not exclusively in the academics or in the workplace. Interactions between course users may continue beyond of the boundaries of the course, and sometimes into other MOOCs. These various interactions include collaborative tasks, as well as tasks which should be performed individually, such as assessments. This work illustrates the mismatch that can appear between prescribed and actual tasks, and the potential importance of interactions between users, to address the isolation that contributes to low retention rates for online learners.</p> Matthieu Tenzing Cisel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:05 -0700 Sustainability of Open Education Through Collaboration <p>The definition of openness influenced the sustainability of business models of Open Education (OE). Yet, whether openness is defined as the free (re)usage of resources, or the free entry in courses, there always is a discussion on who pays for the resources used in these offerings. The free offering of courses or materials raises the question if OE can be maintained independent of large government subsidies. This article analyzes four cases that each have a different approach to OE and (financial) survival. The aim of this study is to determine the most efficient conditions for a sustainable OE business model.</p><p class="3">Instead of using different earning models, this research concentrates on the different aspects of unbundling (costs, income, and financiers), arguing that an adjusted Business Model Canvas can be used to analyze the not-for-profit organizations in higher education institutions (HEIs). The cases are OpenupEd, FemTechNet, MERLOT, and Lumen Learning. Openness plays different roles in the business models of the different organizations. For OpenupEd and MERLOT, openness of the materials offered to students and teachers (MOOCs, OER) is essential. For FemTechNet, openness is part of the need to collaborate and share within their community. Commercial organizations, such as Lumen Learning, use free materials to teach educational organizations to use these materials for their own courses. All four organizations use different key activities and key resources (for example, management competencies, social skills, or design and teaching skills) for their continuity. Yet, despite the differences between the case-organizations, community building is important in all cases. Either because producers and users of Open Education become identical, because standardization does decrease costs and increases findability and quality, or because they can bridge the difference between supply and competences necessary for usage of Open Education.</p> Frank de Langen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:05 -0700 Looking Beyond Institutional Boundaries: Examining Adults’ Experience of Choosing Online as Part of Their Post-Secondary Studies <p class="3">This research focused beyond the student, course, program, or institution by examining the conceptions of adults at the moment in time that they evaluated their choice to engage in furthering their post-secondary education by examining the possibilities provided through online learning. To capture their experience, not as students but as members of society, a practice of care framework, adapted from Tronto’s (1993) work, was utilized as a theoretical framework.  The use of this framework acknowledges that the practice of care is present in the lives of every human being and that each human being has received and/or provided care as part of their lived experience. A phenomenographical qualitative approach was the basis for the design of this project which allowed for the identification of the commonalities and variations of the described experience.  All described experiences illustrated the balancing of needs, wants, and responsibilities, these descriptions included recognition of care of one’s self, one’s family, and one’s community. The variation could be described as an expansion of the recognition of care, that is the focus of care expanded from self to family and then from family to community. This expansion occurred only in those described experiences that showed a strong conception of themselves within the previous category. The findings show that the choice to access online courses and/or programs provides possibilities for many adults that wish to continue their education but only if the educational environment can move away from its institutional centric perspective.</p> Kari Rasmussen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:05 -0700 Purpose, Pedagogy and Philosophy: “Being” an Online Lecturer <p class="3">Instructing online has become an increasingly common aspect of a university lecturer’s role. While research has developed an understanding of the student learning experience, less attention has been paid to the role of the lecturer. This study observed the practice of university lecturers teaching in a range of undergraduate degree programmes in the United Kingdom. The lecturers’ purpose, pedagogy, and philosophy emerged in the dialogic patterns of the online space. Practice was shaped by the lecturers’ epistemological positioning and their cultural values and beliefs. The practice, which was observed across different modules, reflected the different positions lecturers took when they approached online teaching. The research highlights the way in which a lecturers’ purpose, pedagogy, and philosophy are reflected in their online facilitation.</p> Helen Coker ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:05 -0700 Characterization of the Reasons Why Brazilian Science Teachers Drop Out of Online Professional Development Courses <p class="3">Teachers face different challenges and opportunities through distance education. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to investigate the factors leading in-service science teachers to quit online courses. No differences were found between persistent and drop-out teachers based on their sociodemographic data and their technological skills. The dropout rates were unrelated to courses’ contents or duration. A follow-up procedure revealed that a heavy workload and technological issues accounted for most of the reasons teachers left courses. We conclude that financial incentives and reduced workload are key factors that could minimize attrition and increase persistence among Brazilian teachers.</p> Maurício Roberto Motta Pinto da Luz, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Rolando, Daniel Fábio Salvador, André Sousa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:05 -0700 Interaction of Proctoring and Student Major on Online Test Performance <p class="3">Traditional and online university courses share expectations for quality content and rigor. Student and faculty concerns about compromised academic integrity and actual instances of academic dishonesty in assessments, especially with online testing, are increasingly troublesome. Recent research suggests that in the absence of proctoring, the time taken to complete an exam increases significantly and online test results are inflated. This study uses a randomized design in seven sections of an online course to examine test scores from 97 students and time taken to complete online tests with and without proctoring software, controlling for exam difficulty, course design, instructor effects, and student majors. Results from fixed effects estimated from a fitted statistical model showed a significant advantage in quiz performance (7-9 points on a 100 point quiz) when students were not proctored, with all other variables statistically accounted for. Larger grade disparities and longer testing times were observed on the most difficult quizzes, and with factors that reflected the perception of high stakes of the quiz grades. Overall, use of proctoring software resulted in lower quiz scores, shorter quiz taking times, and less variation in quiz performance across exams, implying greater compliance with academic integrity compared with when quizzes were taken without proctoring software.</p> Helaine M Alessio, Nancy Malay, Karsten Maurer, A. John Bailer, Beth Rubin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:05 -0700 Making Sense of Learning Analytics Dashboards: A Technology Acceptance Perspective of 95 Teachers <p class="3">The importance of teachers in online learning is widely acknowledged to effectively support and stimulate learners. With the increasing availability of learning analytics data, online teachers might be able to use learning analytics dashboards to facilitate learners with different learning needs. However, deployment of learning analytics visualisations by teachers also requires buy-in from teachers. Using the principles of technology acceptance model, in this embedded case-study, we explored teachers’ readiness for learning analytics visualisations amongst 95 experienced teaching staff at one of the largest distance learning universities by using an innovative training method called Analytics4Action Workshop. The findings indicated that participants appreciated the interactive and hands-on approach, but at the same time were skeptical about the perceived ease of use of learning analytics tools they were offered. Most teachers indicated a need for additional training and follow-up support for working with learning analytics tools. Our results highlight a need for institutions to provide effective professional development opportunities for learning analytics.</p> Bart Rienties, Christothea Herodotou, Tom Olney, Mat Schencks, Avi Boroowa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:05 -0700 Hacking History: Redressing Gender Inequities on Wikipedia Through an Editathon <p class="3">Editathons are a relatively new type of learning event, which enable participants to create or edit Wikipedia content on a particular topic. This paper explores the experiences of nine participants of an editathon at the University of Edinburgh on the topic of the <em>Edinburgh Seven,</em> who were the first women to attend medical school in 19th century United Kingdom. This study draws on the critical approach to learning technology to position and explore an editathon as a learning opportunity to increase participants’ critical awareness of how the Internet, open resources, and Wikipedia are shaping how we engage with information and construct knowledge. Within this, there is a particular focus on recognising persisting gender inequities and biases online. The qualitative interviews captured rich narrative learning stories, which traced the journey participants took during the editathon. Participants transformed from being online information consumers to active contributors (editors), prompting new critical understandings and an evolving sense of agency. The participants’ learning was focused in three primary areas: (1) a rewriting of history that redresses gender inequities and the championing of the female voice on Wikipedia (both as editors and subject matter); (2) the role of Wikipedia in shaping society’s access to and engagement with information, particularly information on traditionally marginalised subjects, and the interplay of the individual and the collective in developing and owning that knowledge; and (3) the positioning of traditional media in the digital age.</p> Nina Hood, Allison Littlejohn ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:06 -0700 The Inherent Tensions of “Instant Education”: A Critical Review of Mobile Instant Messaging <p class="3">This paper critically reviews literature on the role of Mobile Instant Messaging (MIM) applications, such as WhatsApp, in supporting learning and teaching practice. Using formal qualitative synthesis as its methodology, and dialectical theory as an analytical framework, our main objective was to identify tensions, affordances, constraints, and resolution strategies in educational uses of MIM. In contrast to prior work, the analysis offers a nuanced and complex picture of the use of MIM in learning and teaching settings. Instead of facilitating the creation of educational outcomes in a straightforward manner, the realities of MIM use are socially constructed and the subject of conflictual negotiations. The educational use of MIM requires users to navigate the interdependent dialectical tensions of immediacy versus delays (temporal dimension), intimacy versus detachment (relationship dimension) and task versus ludic orientation (intellectual dimension). The findings also reveal a number of behavioural and technical resolution strategies that users deploy to manage these tensions.</p> Christoph Pimmer, Patient Rambe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:06 -0700 Co-Construction Concept Through Cloud-Based Social Network Platform Design, Implementation, and Evaluation <p class="3">Today’s learners can easily share their thoughts on their social networks, and this movement, undoubtedly, has been affecting their learning. However, learners in such an ad hoc social network environment need a deliberate design to support their idea sharing and concept exchange. Gaining insights into how to stimulate concept sharing in a social network helps learners learn. To this end, this study examined how to design a cloud-based concept construction platform, and analyzed the users’ interaction behaviours on the platform. A cloud-based platform named was implemented to achieve the aim. The platform has three major functions: (a) co-construction concept building, (b) social network organization, and (c) concept circulation among social networks. Seven hundred and twenty-six accounts registered on the platform. Users constructed 2,121 concepts using 20,049 nodes, and 1,618 files were established. The access statistics results indicated that the platform was used throughout the day, in which the ratio of in-class to after-class access was 0.59:0.41. Among the interactions, 31.24% belonged to concept construction and 68.76% were user responses. Meanwhile, the key player social networking analysis results indicated that teachers appear to play a crucial role in initiating concept construction and triggering social interaction within the type of concept construction social network.</p> Ben Chang, Yen-An Shih, Fang-Chen Lu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:06 -0700 Mitigating Suburban English Writing Teachers’ Constrained Professional Development Through Distance Education: One Case Study <p class="3">This study reports on how a Chinese suburban English writing teacher responded to systemic functional linguistics (SFL)-based distance education. The study draws on qualitative content analyses of the teacher’s reflections, interviews, and classroom interactions. The results show that through SFL-based distance education, the teacher, interacting with his agency, overcame multiple constraints and developed academically in terms of how to understand valued academic writing. Additionally, the teacher also harnessed this newfound knowledge to support students’ socialization into academic English discourse. The study concludes the effectiveness of SFL-based distance education for English writing teachers in similarly constrained contexts, which could be enhanced by teachers’ agency. Implications of the study include synergizing the SFL-based curriculum with distance teacher education so that language educators can better assist students in gaining the knowledge needed for navigating academic English literacy.</p> Xiaodong Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:06 -0700 An e-Learning Model for Teaching Mathematics on an Open Source Learning Platform <p class="3">Throughout the world, mathematics plays a vital role for the educational and developmental aspirations of any country. The quest to teach mathematical knowledge in a viable and effective way so as to induce creativity and applicability among learners is an ongoing challenge, especially for developing countries. A better understanding of how students learn mathematics coupled with effective application of mathematical e-learning can enhance meaningful learning of mathematics and make the subject more exciting. In this note, we introduce a mathematical e-learning model suitable for the modern digital era based on the learning theories of social constructivism, social realism, and connectivity. We then discuss the feasibility of implementing the model on an open source e-learning platform. Our findings reveal that the platform offers a developer’s tool for coding and customizing templates to attain higher levels of usage and interactivity in which learners can create and control learning objects while they observe the results.   </p> Jeong Yong Ahn, Akugizibwe Edwin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 27 Nov 2018 14:08:06 -0700