The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning <p>The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning (<a href=""></a>) is a refereed, open access e-journal that disseminates original research, theory, and best practice in open and distributed learning worldwide. IRRODL is available free-of-charge to anyone with access to the Internet, and there are no article submission or access charges for publication in this open journal.</p> <p>The Journal targets both researchers and practitionares of open and distance education systems. It thus aims to improve the quality of basic and applied research while also addressing the need for this knowledge to be translated into polices and activities that improve educational opportunity for students and teachers.</p> en-US <p>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution&nbsp;4.0 International Licence. The copyright of all content published in IRRODL is retained by the authors.</p> <p>This copyright agreement and use license ensures, among other things, that an article will be as widely distributed as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific and/or scholarly archive.</p> <p>You are free to</p> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</li> <li class="show"><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.</li> </ul> <p>The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms below:</p> <ul> <li class="show">&nbsp;<strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a href="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a href="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.</li> </ul> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a href="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> (IRRODL Manager) (AU Press Technical Support) Wed, 08 Apr 2020 15:15:06 -0600 OJS 60 Editorial – Volume 21, Issue 2 <img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Dietmar Kennepohl Copyright (c) 2020 Fri, 20 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0600 Sprinting to the Finish Line: The Benefits and Challenges of Book Sprints in OER Faculty-Graduate Student Collaborations <p class="3"><span lang="EN-US">This article investigates the results of a book sprint experience whose main objective was the development of instructional modules for an open textbook for the teaching of Spanish as a second language. Six graduate students at a public American university participated in the project for a week, working in pairs in the creation of activities that required the incorporation of the tenets of the dual pedagogical frameworks of performance- and literacy-based instruction (as realized through learning by design). Data were collected through both an opinion survey and the assessment of samples of the participants’ products. The results of the survey showed that graduate students felt that being part of the book sprint had been beneficial both at the professional and personal levels, but they had also experienced difficulties similar to those reported in previous studies. The products analyzed pointed to a lack of connection between the required pedagogical tenets and the materials developed, which has also been reported in existing works on pre- and in-service teachers as materials developers. The article discusses how these results could have been a consequence of the structure of the book sprint, and it offers recommendations for future activities of this kind. </span></p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Gabriela C. Zapata Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600 An Exploration Into the Importance of a Sense of Belonging for Online Learners <p>Fostering a sense of belonging and a personal connection is seen as fundamental by many educational researchers, regardless of the learning environment. Online learning certainly provides flexible learning opportunities but comes with notable issues. For online learners, nurturing a sense of belonging may present a way of improving their experiences and attainment, as well as reducing attrition rates. Research specifically exploring sense of belonging and online learning is limited. This article addresses that gap and reports on a small-scale exploratory study using qualitative data-collection and analysis methods to investigate the importance, or not, of sense of belonging for postgraduates’ online education by exploring the origins and nature of their lived experience of online learning and their sense of belonging therein. Our initial findings emphasise its importance for them as online learners and have identified three significant themes: interaction/engagement, the culture of the learning, and support. These early findings highlight the importance of these three themes in promoting a sense of belonging and in ensuring that there are opportunities for meaningful group and peer interactions; they will be of interest to all engaged in online education.</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Susi Peacock, John Cowan, Lindesay Irvine, Jane Williams Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600 An Empirical Study on Service Recovery Satisfaction in an Open and Distance Learning Higher Education Institution in Malaysia <p class="3"><span lang="EN-MY">This study investigated the relationships among justice dimensions (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational), university image, service recovery satisfaction, and customer behavioural outcomes (trust, word of mouth, repurchase intention, and loyalty). <span style="color: black;">This study adopted a cross-sectional survey approach and</span> data were collected through a survey of 303 students of Open University Malaysia in Malaysia who experienced service failure and service recovery. The framework was tested via partial least square structural equation modelling, and the results revealed a significant relationship between justice dimensions and service recovery satisfaction in terms of procedural and interpersonal justice. Service recovery satisfaction had a significant effect on all customer behavioural outcomes investigated. University image did not have a moderating effect on the relationship between justice dimensions and service recovery satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed in this paper. </span></p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Mohd Rushidi bin Mohd Amin, Shishi Kumar Piaralal, Yon Rosli bin Daud, Baderisang bin Mohamed Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600 Open Textbooks: Quality and Relevance for Postsecondary Study in The Bahamas <p class="3"><span lang="EN-US">Open educational resources (OER), are openly licensed text, media, and other digital and analog assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and research. Recent research has shown that in courses where open textbooks are assigned, students perform as well as or better than students in similar courses with commercially licensed textbooks. Despite cost savings and demonstrated effectiveness, perceptions about quality, relevance, ease of access, and other concerns persist. The objectives of this study were twofold: (a) to develop a practical and reusable measure for evaluating open textbook quality in terms of pedagogy, openness, accessibility, and relevance; and (b) to use the measure to rate the quality and relevance of open textbooks for use in higher education in The Bahamas. The study confirmed the viability of the quality measure as a practical tool to assess open resources and found that the open textbooks studied were accessible and well matched to course content, but of varying quality. More study is needed to explore ways to increase faculty adoption, use, adaption and production of OER.</span></p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Edward Bethel Copyright (c) 2019 Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600 Evaluating Pre-Service Teaching Practice for Online and Distance Education Students in Pakistan: Evaluation of Teaching Practice <p>In addition to conventional modes, teacher education programs in Pakistan are also offered through online and distance education. Teaching practice is a significant component of pre-service teacher education programs. Assessing the quality of teaching practice for pre-service student teachers is important, as these modules train the prospective teachers for their professional teaching careers. Virtual University of Pakistan (VU), an online university, offers pre-service teacher education programs. This research is an investigation into the learning opportunities and practices of VU student teachers in their teaching practice modules. Students enrolled in different teacher education programs served as the population of this study. Those in the fall 2018 semester who were enrolled in teaching practice modules were selected as a sample. Data sources included lesson plans prepared, lessons delivered, administrative and co-curricular duties performed by the students, as well as evaluation reports by supervisors, cooperating teachers, and school principals. There were improvements in the student teachers’ lesson plan formation and their overall learning. Data obtained through personal visits by VU faculty was used to verify and assess actual classroom teaching. Lack of regular attendance and punctuality by student teachers was observed as a result. Internal review of the VU system as it relates to the teaching practice modules was conducted to address any shortcomings in the course(s), its procedures, and its controls. Recommendations for improving the system, such as grading the modules, peer-assessment, and orientation workshops for student teachers are provided, as well as suggestions for developments in the teaching practice modules themselves.&nbsp;</p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Nauman Ahmed Abdullah, Munawar Sultana Mirza Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600 Emotions Among Students Engaging in Connectivist Learning Experiences <p class="3"><span lang="EN-US">Emotion has long been a question of great interest in a wide range of fields. As a general rule, emotions are categorized as positive, which we seek, and negative, from which we turn away. However, <a name="_Hlk27661264"></a>empirically-backed connectivists claim that even negative emotions produce positive effects on student performance. What is less clear is how this process happens. This study had two primary aims. First, to assess the prevalence and distribution of emotions in connectivist environments. Second, to provide <span class="tlid-translation">in-depth and experiment-based analysis that shows how and when negative emotions have their positive effect. </span>Data for this study were mainly collected using an aided think-aloud protocol with nine participants, each of whom received ten tasks. Findings of the current study confirmed the dominance of negative emotions in connectivist learning environments and presented a model that could explain the variation of empirical results. Implications for researchers and teachers in distance education are discussed.</span></p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Alaa A AlDahdouh Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600 Postgraduate Distance Education in University of Cape Coast, Ghana: Students’ Perspectives <p class="3"><span lang="EN-US">The study explored perceptions of postgraduate distance education students of University of Cape Coast (UCC). Specifically, associations between UCC postgraduate distance students’ characteristics and satisfaction, as well as students’ perceptions of physical facilities, staff-students relationship, facilitator quality, and student support services were examined. Determinants of students’ satisfaction regarding physical facilities, staff-students relationship, facilitator quality, and student support services were also investigated. A census was used for the study, whereby a questionnaire was used to collect data from 125 students. It was revealed that satisfaction was not dependent on age, gender, or programme of study but was significantly related to study centre location and semester of study. The students were generally satisfied with physical facilities, staff-students relationship, and facilitator quality but were unimpressed with student support services. The three domains that students were impressed with were deemed to be determinants of their satisfaction. It was recommended that those aspects of the programme that received satisfactory responses should be maintained but improved on with time. Those aspects with unfavourable responses, on the other hand, were to be critically considered for immediate improvement.</span></p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Raphael Papa Kweku Andoh, Robert Appiah, Paul Mensah Agyei Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600 Why do University Teachers use E-Learning Systems? <p class="3"><span lang="EN-US">University teachers are the main players when it comes to integrating e-learning systems into higher education institutions. Prior studies have identified four main antecedents that explain teachers’ technology acceptance in the educational context: (a) subjective norms (SN), (b) technological complexity (TC), (c) constructivist beliefs (CB), and (d) motivation for instrumental use (MOT). In this study, we proposed and tested the dual roles of MOT, one as a causal variable and the other as a mediating variable, to explain university teachers’ acceptance of e-learning systems. To test the research model, we collected data from 174 teachers at a large public university in Malaysia using a self-administered survey. Our study shows that MOT mediates the direct effects of SN, TC, and CB on perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and behavioural intention (BI). This study offers important policy insight for university administrators who seek to enhance acceptance of e-learning systems among university teachers.</span></p><img src="" height="1" width="1" alt=""/> Chin Fei Goh, Puong Koh Hii, Owee Kowang Tan, Amran Rasli Copyright (c) 2020 Chin Fei Goh, Puong Koh Hii, Owee Kowang Tan, Amran Rasli, Saudah Sofian Wed, 08 Apr 2020 00:00:00 -0600