Behavioral interventions require data. Decisions are made on the basis of the data collected. Decisions for program changes take into account the performance of the client, often as a frequency count, sometimes within a given period of time. The data is charted so that it can be shared with other stakeholders in case conferences, research papers, staff meetings and professional conferences.

Many years ago while working in classrooms with special needs students, my colleague, Eric Haughton showed me a simple hands-free tool for collecting data – a bead counter made from a shoelace, a clip and some beads, which attached to my belt. See the picture below.

* Make sure you select a flat athletic lace that is twenty-four inches in length. (beads slide down on round laces).

* The lace is tied so that it has two different length strands.

* As well, knots are tied at different levels along each of the two strands.

* Each strand has a knot tied above the beads, nine beads and a second knot tied below the beads. The fifth bead in each strand is a different color.

* The longer strand of beads becomes the one’s column. The shorter strand becomes the ten’s column.

Move both sets of beads to the top knot of its strand to begin. Clip the counter to some part of your clothing. Each time you observe the targeted behavior, simply slide one bead in the one’s column down to the lower knot. When you move the last bead in the one’s column to the bottom knot, you have a score of nine. When the next targeted behavior is observed, you move all of the beads on the one’s column up the strand to the top knot. Then you move the bottommost bead in the ten’s column down to the lower knot on the ten’s strand. Now you have a score often. Repeat this process throughout the observation period. The bead counter can record up to 99 incidents of the targeted behavior. At the end of the observation period record your data on the chart.

How did you do? If you want to share your experiences, or share your data charts, write a comment, or call 1-877-368-1513. Looking forward to hearing from you!

]]>The Maloney Method has teamed up with the University of West Florida ABA department to offer this online course, now open to the public.

The course prepares participants to teach fundamental literacy skills to students (children or adults) on the autism spectrum and individuals at risk of school failure.

You learn how to use Behavior Analysis, Direct Instruction and Precision Teaching. The course uses material that addresses basic behavior skills, pre-language activities, reading lessons, and mathematics programs.

Click here to read the complete course description on the UWF website.

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**Behavior Objective **

The student can See/Mark 80-100 nouns in sentences with 2 or fewer errors/minute.

The worksheet has a number indicating how many nouns are in that sentence.

**Materials **

- Pencil
- Timing Device
- Student to practice this script with
- One Standard Celebration (SCC) Chart (print from course files)

**Discussion **

A noun tells of a person, place, thing or state of mind (e.g. confusion).

Students need to learn grammar skills in order to learn communication skills well. They also require grammar skills in order to analyze deductions so as to know how to write a correct conclusion.

One rule about deductions is that the noun which is found in the rule and the middle part cannot be used in the conclusion. If students cannot quickly and accurately identify nouns, they are much more likely to make errors in writing conclusions to deductions.

Teach your students to recognize nouns using the lesson provided before you begin to teach them reading comprehension skill, especially deductions. Present the first five examples as a lesson. Then let your students try the rest of the set independently. This lesson only deals with identifying nouns in one of the four possible kinds of deductions. While identifying nouns will be useful for all types of deductions, further lessons for other types of deductions are still required and will follow later.

**Teaching Regular Nouns **

**Script **

Say to the student, “**Now we are going to learn about parts of speech called nouns. I am going to teach you some rules so that you can tell which words in a sentence are nouns. Knowing about nouns is important when you are writing stories or notes.” **

Say, “**Here is the rule about nouns. My turn. Listen. A noun tells about a person, place or thing. Listen again. A noun tells about a person, place or thing. Say the rule with me about what a noun tells. Ready.” **

The student and the teacher say, “*A noun tells about a person place or thing.”
*Say to the student, “

**person, place or thing.” **

Say to the student, “**Now it is your turn to say the rule about what a noun tells. Ready.” **

The student answers, “*A noun tells about a person, place or thing. *

Say to the student, “**That’s correct.“ **

Practice until the student can say the rule correctly, quickly and easily.

Say to the student, “**Good learning that rule. You’ve got it. Now let’s use the rule to find the nouns in a sentence. Look at Part A of the worksheet below and read me the first sentence.” **

The student reads, “*Bits of fur floated in the air.”
*Say to the student, “

**nouns are in this sentence. What does that number say?” **

The students says “*Three”
*Say to the student, “

Say to the student, “**That’s correct. Let’s see if you can find the three nouns in the first sentence. Use your rule about nouns to find the first person, place or thing in that sentence. What is the first word that names a person, place or thing in that sentence?” **

The student says, “*Bits.*”

Say to the student, “**That’s right, the first noun names a thing “bits”, Good going.”
**

**Correction Procedure **

If the student makes an error, point to the word “bits” and say, “**My turn. Does the word ‘bits’ tell me about a person, place or thing? Yes, it tells me about a thing. A ‘bit’ is a thing. ‘Bits’ are things. Read the sentence again.” **

The student reads the sentence again.

Say to the student, “**Good reading. Now look at the sentence. What is first word in this sentence that names a **

**person, place or thing?” **

The student says, “*Bits.” *

Say to the student, “**That’s right. Now find the next noun in that sentence.” **

The student says, “*fur” *

Say to the student, “**Good using your rule. ‘Fur’ is a thing, so ‘fur’ is a noun. Now find the third noun in the sentence.” **

The student says “*air”. *

Say to the student, “**Right again. ‘Air’ is also a thing, so ‘air’ is a noun. Tell me all three nouns in that sentence.” **

The student says, “*Bits, fur and air” *

Repeat with several additional examples from **Part A **of the worksheet until the student is naming nouns quickly, easily and without error.

Then let the student complete Part A of the worksheet as you watch. Correct any errors immediately using the correction procedure given above.

**Teaching Proper Nouns **

**Script **

Say to the student, “**Now we are going to learn a second rule. This is a rule about a special kind of noun. This is a rule about proper nouns. Listen. A proper noun tells about special individuals, events or places. Proper nouns always begin with a capital letter. Listen again. A proper noun tells about special individuals, events or place and always begins with a capital letter. **

Say to the student, “**Say that rule with me. Ready.”
**The teacher and the student say the rule together, “

Practice until the student can say the rule correctly, quickly and easily.

Say to the student, “**Good learning that rule. Now say the rule all by yourself. Ready. **

The student says, “*A proper noun tells about special individuals, events or places and always begins with a capital letter.” *

Say to the student, “**You’ve got it. Now let’s use the rule to find the nouns in sentences. Look at Part B of your worksheet. The title says ‘proper nouns’. Read me the first sentence of Part B.” **

The student reads, “*General George Washington became the first president of the United States after the Revolutionary War.” *

Say to the student, “**Good reading. The number at the end of the sentence tells you how many nouns are in that sentence. How many nouns are in this sentence?”**

The student **says, **“*Four” *

Say to the student, “**That’s correct. The sentence has four nouns. Some of these nouns might be proper nouns. So what is the first noun in that sentence? Use your rules about nouns and proper nouns to figure it out.” **

The student says, “*General George Washington.”
*Say to the student, “

Say to the student, “

Say to the student, “ **Why is it a regular noun?” **

The student says*, “In this sentence, president does not name a special person.” *

Say to the student, “**That’s correct. What is the next noun?” **

The student says, “ *United States” *

Say to the student, “**Is United States a regular or proper noun?” **

The student says, “*United States is a proper noun because it names a special place.” *

Say to the student, “**Good using your rule. What is the last noun in that sentence?” **

The student says, “*Revolutionary War.” *

Say to the student, “**Is Revolutionary War a regular noun or a proper noun?” **

The student says, “*A proper noun because Revolutionary War names a special event.” *

Say to the student, “**Nice work. You are right again. Let’s do the next sentence.” **

Repeat the procedure with the next 10 sentences. Then give the student a chance to do the rest of the sentences independently as you watch. Correct all errors immediately.

**Measuring Progress – The One-Minute Timing **

Say to the student, “**Now we will do a one-minute timing of your knowledge of nouns. Look at Exercise C on your worksheet. You will read each sentence and underline each regular noun and circle each proper noun. What are you going to do with each regular noun?” **

The student says, “*Underline it.”
*Say to the student, “

Say to the student, “**That’s correct. I will give you one minute to underline or circle as many nouns as you can. You may start as soon as I say ‘Please begin’. You will stop after one minute when I say ‘Thank you’. Ready. Please begin.” **

Time the student for one minute, then say, “**Thank you.” **

Correct the student’s work. Correct any errors and review them with the student. Record the number of correctly marked nouns and the number of errors on the chart. Have the student complete the worksheet for additional practice. The student should be able to mark between 80 and 100 nouns in one minute with no more than 2 errors.

**Teaching Regular Nouns – See / Mark Nouns **

**Worksheet – Part A**

**
**Find the

**Bits of fur floated in the air. (3)****Seven spiders sat on a large leaf. (2)****Three dogs, two cats and a monkey went for a walk in the park. (5)****Are you going there right now? (0)****How many cookies did you eat? (1)****Get off the boat! (1)****When the rain started, all of the players left the field. (3)****The birds sat on the wire and made a lot of noise. (4)****Who has the green jacket and the green hat? (2)****The tall woman wants two pairs of shoes. (3)**

**Teaching Proper Nouns – See / Mark Nouns **

**Worksheet – Part B**

**
**Find the

1. General George Washington became the first president of the United States after the Revolutionary War. (4)

2. When the game was over the Bandits had scored two goals. (3)

3. The second runner tripped on Main Street. (2)

4. “Captain Brant wants to see you right now”, she said.

5. Mayor Thompson cancelled the parade.

6. The mayor cancelled the Fourth of July parade.

7. That mountain range has very high peaks.

8. The Rocky Mountains have very high peaks.

9. Which book would he like to read?

10. The Wizard of Ox is a great book for him to read.

11.Seven lizards ran into the pond.

12. Miguel, the producer of the movie, won a big award.

13. The director did not win any awards.

14. When was the last time you went to the dentist?

15. Who took it and where did they go?

16. During the Second World War, General Patton was well known.

17. At the Tour de France, all of the riders have to be very fast.

18. Man of War won the Kentucky Derby in record time.

19. The company will ship your order today.

20. The rain fell on London for ten more days.

21. How fast will that Honda go?

22. How fast does your car go?

23. Barnum & Bailey created a large circus with many animals.

24. The Washington Post has a large staff of writers.

25. Many of the authors did not come back after lunch.

26. John Steinbeck, the author of * Grapes of Wrath, *wrote many other books.

27. Queen Elizabeth has a very busy travel schedule.

28. The Titanic hit an iceberg and sank.

29 The World Series usually starts in October.

30. When the branch broke, the boy fell out of the tree.

**Teaching Proper Nouns – See / Mark Nouns **

**Teaching Regular and Proper Nouns **

**Worksheet Part C – Measuring Progress – The One-Minute Timing**

Read each sentence and underline each regular noun and circle each proper noun.

- General George Washington became the first president of the United States after the Revolutionary War. (4)
- When the game was over the Bandits had scored two goals. (3)
- The second runner tripped on Main Street. (2)
- Queen Elizabeth has a very busy travel schedule. (2)
- The Titanic hit an iceberg and sank. (2)
- The World Series usually starts in October. (2)
- When the branch broke, the boy fell out of the tree. (3)
- Bits of fur floated in the air. (3)
- Seven spiders sat on a large leaf. (2)
- Three dogs, two cats and a monkey went for a walk in the park. (5) Are you going there right now? (0)
- How many cookies did you eat? (1)
- Get off the boat! (1)
- When the rain started, all of the players left the field. (3)
- The birds sat on the wire and made a lot of noise. (4)
- Who has the green jacket and the green hat? (2)
- The tall woman wants two pairs of shoes. (3)
- “Captain Brant wants to see you right now”, she said. (1)
- Mayor Thompson cancelled the parade. (2)
- The mayor cancelled the Fourth of July parade. (2)
- That mountain range has very high peaks. (2)
- The Rocky Mountains have very high peaks. (2)
- Which book would she like to read? (1)
- The Wizard of Ox is a great book for her to read. (2)
- Seven lizards ran into the pond. (2)
- Miguel, the producer of the movie, won a big award. (4)
- The director did not win any awards. (2)
- When was the last time you went to the dentist? (2)
- Who took it and where did they go? (0)
- During the Second World War, General Patton was well known. (2)
- At the Tour de France, the riders have to be very fast. (2)
- Man of War won the Kentucky Derby in record time. (3)
- The company will ship your order today. (2)
- The rain fell on London for ten more days. (3)
- How fast will that Honda go? (1)
- How fast does your car go? (1)
- Barnum & Bailey created a large circus with many animals. (3)
- The Washington Post has a large staff of writers. (3)
- Many of the authors did not come back after lunch. (2)
- Who was that? (0)

**For a printable pdf version of the lesson, covering regular and proper nouns, click here.**

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Here’s the good news – with the right instructional design, you can do just that!

Here’s the better news – if you can follow a script, you can solve the problem!

Here’s an example lesson covering the **Final “e” Rule** in spelling.

**Click here to view and download a pdf version of this lesson – free with no obligation.**

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Click here to view and download the entire lesson, including 4 exercises and the student worksheets.

Say to the students, Now we are going to learn about fractions. Here is the first rule about fractions. We create fractions when we divide one or more things into equal parts. Listen again. We create fractions when we divide one or more things into equal parts. Say the rule about creating fractions with me. Ready. Signal.

Teacher and students say, We create fractions when we divide one or more things into equal parts.

Say the rule about creating fractions with me one more time. Ready. Signal. Teacher and students say, We create fractions when we divide one or more things into equal parts.

Say that rule on your own. Ready. Signal.

Students say, We create fractions when we divide one or more things into equal parts.

Well done. Say the rule again, Ready. Signal.

Students say, We create fractions when we divide one or more things into equal parts.

Here’s a second rule about fractions. Listen. A fraction has two parts. Listen again. A fraction has two parts. Say the rule about how many parts a fraction has. Ready. Signal.

Students say, A fraction has two parts.

Well said. Open your workbook to Lesson #1 – Exercise #1. Touch the first problem.

1 / 5

Touch the 5. Here is the third rule about fractions. The bottom part of the fraction tells us how many parts are in each group. Listen again. The bottom part of the fraction tells us how many parts are in each group.

Say the rule with me. Ready. Signal.

Teacher and students say, The bottom part of the fraction tells us how many parts are in each group.

Say the rule one more time. Ready. Signal.

Teacher and students say, The bottom part of the fraction tells us how many parts are in each group.

Your turn to say the rule about the bottom part of the fraction. Ready. Signal. Students say, The bottom part of the fraction tells us how many parts are in each group.

One more time, say the rule. Ready. Signal.

Students say, The bottom part of the fraction tells us how many parts are in each group.

Touch the number 5 on the bottom of the fraction. The number 5 tells us that there are five parts in each group. How many parts are in this group? Ready. Signal.

Students say, 5parts in each group.

Here is a picture of a fraction with 5parts in each group. Draw on the board or on a piece of paper a circle or rectangle divided into 5 equal parts.

Listen. It does not tell me how many groups there are. It only tells me that each group will have 5 equal parts.

Draw another group. If I draw another group, it must have 5parts as well. How many parts must this group have? Ready. Signal.

Students say, 5 parts in each group.

Draw 2 more circles. And how many parts must each of these two groups have?

Students say, 5 parts in each group.

Point to the 5. Does this number tell me how many parts are in each group? Ready. Signal.

Students say, Yes, 5 parts in each group.

Point to the 5. Does this number tell how many groups there are? Ready. Signal.

Students say, No.

Good job. The number 5 tells me that each group must have 5 parts, but it does not tell me how many groups there are.

Look at the next example, Q. How many parts are there in each group? Ready. Signal.

Students say, 3.

We can use circles, rectangles and even number lines to draw fractions. Draw a circle, a rectangle and a number line on the board or a piece of paper all showing two thirds.

Repeat for several examples until the students respond quickly and correctly. Have the students write the bottom number in the blank to how many parts are in each group.

Here is a whole and complete lesson for you to use for free.

This lesson uses Direct Instruction scripting to reduce frustration and confusion for the student. It also uses behavior objectives and precision teaching methods so that the student can quickly achieve fluency and mastery in the application of order of operations problems.

You can deliver each task in the lesson as a separate activity, and repeat as necessary with students. A link to a downloadable pdf with all tasks and worksheets can be found at the bottom.

Order of Operations can be confusing for students. It is much more effectively taught if we use a formula known as B.E.D.M.A.S. B.E.D.M.A.S. outlines the order in which the various steps in an order of operations math problem must be solved. The following script outlines the concepts in a step-by-step lesson.

Say to the students, “Now I am going to teach you some rules about the order of operations. The order of operations tells you the steps you must use to solve math equations. Here is the first rule. When you solve math equations, you work the problem from left to right. Listen again. When you solve math equations, you work the problem from left to right. Say that rule with me. Ready. Signal.

Students and teacher together say, “When you solve math equations, you work the problem from left to right.

Say to the students, “Say that rule all by yourselves. Ready. Signal.

Students say, “When you solve math equations, you work the problem from left to right.”

Have the students repeat the rule until they can say it quickly and accurately.

Say to the students, “New rule. My turn. Listen. When we do math problems we do each step in the correct order. Listen again. When we do math problems we do each step in the correct order. Say that rule with me. Ready.” Signal.

The teacher and students say, “When we do math problems we do each of the steps in the correct order.

Say to the students, “Say that rule with me again. Ready.” Signal.

Teacher and students say, “When we do a math problem, we do each of the steps in the correct order.”

Repeat the rule with the students until they can say it quickly and correctly.

Say to the students, “Now it is your turn to say the rule about the order of operations all by yourselves. Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “When we do a math problem, we do each of the steps in the correct order.”

Have the students repeat the rule until they can say it quickly and correctly.

Write on the board B.E.D.M.A.S. Point to the acronym and say to the students, “Here is an easy formula to remember the order of operations. Listen B.E.D.M.A.S. Listen again. B.E.D.M.A.S. Say that word. Ready. Signal.

Students say, “BEDMAS”

Say to the students, “B.E.D.M.A.S. is an acronym that tells us the order of the steps to solve a math problem. Listen again. “B.E.D.M.A.S. is an acronym that tells us the order of the steps for solving a math problem.

Say to the students, “My turn to say the rule about B.E.D.M.A.S. Listen. Each letter stands for one of the steps in the problem. Listen again. Each letter stands for one of the steps in the problem. What does each letter in B.E.D.M.A.S. stand for? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Each letter stands for one of the steps in the problem.”

Say to the students, “My turn to say what the letters in B.E.D.M.A.S. stand for. Listen. B stands for Brackets. What does the B in B.E.D.M.A.S. stand for? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. If there are any brackets in the problem, we have to do the brackets first. What is the first step in solving the problem? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Do the brackets first.”

Say to the students, “Next letter. The E in B.E.D.M.A.S. stands for Exponents. What does the E in B.E.D.M.A.S. stand for? Ready? Signal.

The students say, “Exponents.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. Exponents. After we do all the brackets in the problem, we do any exponents. Listen again. After we do the brackets, then we do the exponents. What do we do first? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “We work with the brackets.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. After the brackets, what do we do next? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “We work with the exponents”

Say to the students, “You got it. First, we do brackets, then we do exponents. Here is the next letters. Listen. ‘D’. ‘M’. ‘D’ stands for

Division. ‘M’ stands for Multiplication. After we do the exponents, we do the division and multiplication. What do we do after the exponents? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “We work with the division and multiplication.”

Say to the students, “That’s right. After the brackets and the exponents we work with any division and multiplication. Now we have ‘B’, ‘E’, ‘D’ and ‘M’. Tell me what each letter stands for. ‘B’. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Brackets”

Say to the students, “ Good remembering. Next letter ‘E’. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Exponents”

Say to the students, “ Great. Next letter ‘D’. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Division.”

Say to the students, “You got it. Last letter ‘M’. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Multiplication.”

Say to the students, “Right again. Now lets add the last two letters of B.E.D.M.A.S. Listen. The last two letters are ‘A’ and ‘S’. What are the last two letters of B.E.D.M.A.S.? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “A and S.”

Say to the students, “Yes. ‘A’ stands for addition. ‘S’ stands for subtraction. Listen again. ‘A’ stands for addition. ‘S’ stands for subtraction. Your turn. What does ‘A’ stand for? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “A stands for addition.”

Say to the students, “Correct. ‘A’ stands for addition. What does ‘S’ stand for? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “S stands for subtraction.”

Say to the students, “That’s right. Now you know what each of the letters in B.E.D.M.A.S. stands for. Let’s review

What does the B in B.E.D.M.A.S. stand for? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, “Next letter. The E in B.E.D.M.A.S. stands for Exponents. What does the ‘E’ in B.E.D.M.A.S. stand for? Ready? Signal.

The students say, “Exponents.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. Exponents. What do we do after the exponents? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Division and Multiplication.”

Say to the students, “ Good remembering. What do the last two letters of B.E.D.M.A.S. stand for? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Addition and Subtraction.”

Say to the students, “Yes. ‘Addition and Subtraction. Nice work. Now we know the order in which we will do the steps in the problem. Let’s look at some problems and see how we solve them.

Write on the board.

5 + 7 – 4 =

Say to the students, “My turn to read the problem. Listen, Five plus seven minus four equals some number. Your turn to read the problem. Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Five plus seven minus four equals some number.”

Say to the students, “Good reading the problem. Remember the first rule about working the problem. When we work this problem do we go from right to left or from left to right. Ready.

Signal.

The students respond, “We work the problem from left to right.”

Say to the students, “Good remembering that rule. We work the problem from left to right. Look at the acronym for B.E.D.M.A.S. What is the first thing we look for in the problem?” Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, Correct. Are there any brackets in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “Right. There are no brackets. Look at the formula. What do we look for next? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Exponents.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. After the brackets, we look for exponents. Are there any exponents in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “Right again. There are no exponents in this problem. Check your formula. What do we look for next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Division and Multiplication.”

Say to the students, “You got that right as well. Are there any division or multiplication signs in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “That’s right. There are no division or multiplication signs in this problem. Look at the last part of the formula. What do we look for next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Addition and subtraction.”

Say to the students, “Are there any addition and subtraction signs in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Read the problem. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Five plus seven minus four equals some number.”

Say to the students, “What do we do first?”

Students say, “ Add 5 +7”

Say to the students, “That’s right. What is 5 + 7? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Twelve.”

Say to the students, “Right. What do we do next?”

Students say, “ We subtract 4 from 12.”

Say to the students, “What is 12 minus 4? Ready?”

Students answer, “8”

Say to the students, “Are there any steps left to do?”

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “Good working that problem. Let’s look at another one.

Write on the board. 6 + 9 x 3 – 12 =

Say to the students, “Read this problem. Ready. Signal.

Students read, “Six plus nine times three minus twelve equals some number”

Say to the students, “Let’s use our formula to solve this problem. What do we look for first? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, Correct. Are there any brackets in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “Right. There are no brackets. Look at the formula. What do we look for next? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Exponents.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. After the brackets, we look for exponents. Are there any exponents in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “Right again. There are no exponents in this problem. Check your formula. What do we look for next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Division and Multiplication.”

Say to the students, “You got that right as well. Are there any division or multiplication signs in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Remember. You work the problem from the left to the right. What do you do with the 6? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Pass over it to the multiplication.”

Say to the students, “What do we do first? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “We multiply 9 x 3.”

Say to the students, “That’s right. What does 9 x 3 equal?”

Students say, “27.”

Say to the students, “Perfect. 9 x 3 is 27. What do you do next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Add 6 and 27.”

Say to the students, “Good remembering to work from the left to the right. What is 6 + 27?

Students say, “6 + 27 = 33.”

Say to the students, “Good work. What is the next step in this problem? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Subtract 12 from 33.”

Say to the students, “Absolutely. What is thirty-three minus twelve? Ready.” Signal.

Students reply, “ 21”

Say to the students, “ Have we done all of the steps? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Yes. You did all of the steps. Let’s look at another problem.”

Write on the board 10 x 3 – 16 ÷ 4

Say to the students, “Read this problem. Ready. Signal.

Students read, “Six plus nine times three minus twelve equals some number”

Say to the students, “Let’s use our formula to solve this problem. What do we look for first? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, Correct. Are there any brackets in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “Right. There are no brackets. Look at the formula. What do we look for next? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Exponents.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. After the brackets, we look for exponents. Are there any exponents in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “Right again. There are no exponents in this problem. Check your formula. What do we look for next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Division and Multiplication.”

Say to the students, “You got that right as well. Are there any division or multiplication signs in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Remember. You work the problem from the left to the right. What do you do first? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Divide 16 by 4.”

Say to the students, “Good work. What is 16 divided by 4? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “16 ÷ 4 = 4”

Write on the board 10 x 3 – 4 =

Say to the students, “Nice work. 16 ÷ 4 does equal 4. What do you do next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Multiply 10 x 3.”

Say to the students, “Yes indeed. What is 10 x 3?” Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “10 x 3 = 30.”

Say to the students, “You got it 10 x 3 equals 30.

Write on the board, 30 – 4 =

Say to the students, “What is the next step?” Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “We subtract 4 from 30.”

Say to the students, “ Yes. “What is 30 minus 4?”

Students say, “26”

Say to the students, “Did we finish all of the steps? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Good work. Here is a more difficult question.”

Write on the board. 100 – 7² + 12 ÷ 3 =

Say to the students, “Read this problem. Ready. Signal.

Students read, “One hundred minus seven squared plus twelve divided by three equals some number.”

Say to the students, “Let’s use our formula to solve this problem. What do we look for first? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, Correct. Are there any brackets in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Students say, “Exponents.”

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Right again. There are exponents in this problem. What is the exponent in this problem? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “ Seven squared”

Say to the students, “Let’s work this part of the problem. What is seven squared? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “7² = 49”

Say to the students, “That’s right.”

Write on the board. 100 – 49 + 12 ÷ 3 =

Check your formula. What do we look for next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Division and Multiplication.”

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Remember. You work the problem from the left to the right. What do you do next. Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Divide 12 by 3.”

Say to the students, “Good work. What is 12 divided by 3? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “12 ÷ 3 = 4”

Write on the board 100 – 49 + 4 =

Say to the students, “Nice work. 12 ÷ 3 does equal 4. What do you do next? Ready.” Signal.

Say to the students, What is the next step? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “We subtract 49 from 100.”

Say to the students, “ Yes. What does 100 minus 49 equal?”

Students say, “One hundred minus forty nine is fifty-one”

Write on the board. 51 + 4

Say to the students, “Correct again. Did we finish all of the steps?

Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “What do we still have to do?”

Students say, “Add fifty-one plus four.”

Say to the students, “Do that. How much is fifty-one plus four?”

The students say, “Fifty-one plus four is fifty-five”

Write on the board 55

Say to the students, “Have we done all of the steps. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “So what is 100 – 7² + 12 ÷ 3? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Fifty-five.”

Write on the board 36 ÷ 12 + 2(5 – 2) =

Say to the students, “This problem is more difficult. Let’s see if you can solve this one. Read this problem. Ready.” Signal.

Students read, “Thirty-six divided by twelve plus two bracket five minus two bracket equals some number.”

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, Correct. Are there any brackets in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Right. There are brackets. What numbers are in the brackets. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Five minus two.”

Say to the students, “Right. First we work with the numbers inside the bracket. What is five minus two? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Five minus two equals three.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. Now we have a three inside the brackets. To get rid of the brackets we have to multiply the

number outside the bracket by the number inside the bracket. What number is outside the brackets. Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “Two”.

Say to the students. “That’s right. So what numbers do we multiply? Ready.”

The students say, “Two times three.”

Say to the students, “ How much is two times three? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Two times three equals six.”

Say to the students, “You got it. Now you have removed the brackets.”

Write on the board. 36 ÷ 12 + 6 =

Say to the students, “What is the next step?”

Students say, “Divide twelve into thirty-six.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. How many times does twelve divide into thirty-six? Ready.” Signal.

The students say “Three times.”

Say to the students, “Yes, three times.”

Write on the board. 3 + 6 =

Say to the students, “What does 3 + 6 equal?”

Students say, “Three plus six equals nine.”

Say to the students, “So what does thirty-six divided by twelve plus two times five minus two equal? Ready.” Signal

Students say, “Nine.”

Task 8 – More Advanced Problem (Exponents and Brackets)

Write on the board. 6³ – 3(4) + 90 ÷ 10

Say to the students, “Read this problem. Ready.” Signal.

Students read, “Six cubed minus three bracket four bracket plus ninety divided by ten equals some number.”

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, Correct. Are there any brackets in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Right. There are brackets.

What do we look for next? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “We multiply the number in the bracket by the number outside of the bracket.”

Say to the students, “What numbers do we multiply? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Four times three.”

Say to the students, “How much is four times three. Ready.”

Students say, “Twelve”

Write on the board. 6³ – 12 + 90 ÷ 10 =

Say to the students, “What do we do next in this problem? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Exponents.”

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Right again. There are exponents in this problem. What is the exponent in this problem? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Six cubed”

Say to the students, “Let’s work this part of the problem. What is six cubed? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “Six cubed equals eighteen.”

Say to the students, “That’s right.”

Write on the board. 18 – 12 + 90 ÷ 10 =

Check your formula. What do we look for next? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Division and Multiplication.”

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Remember. You work the problem from the left to the right. What do you do next? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Divide ninety by ten.”

Say to the students, “Good work. What is 90 divided by 10? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Ninety divided by ten equals nine”

Write on the board 18 – 12 + 9 =

Say to the students, “Nice work. 90 ÷ 10 does equal 9. What do you do next? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “We subtract 12 from 18.”

Say to the students, “ Yes. What is 18 minus 12?”

Students say, “Eighteen minus twelve is six”

Write on the board. 6 + 9

Say to the students, “Correct again. Did we finish all of the steps?

Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “No.”

Say to the students, “What do we still have to do?”

Students say, “Add six plus nine.”

Say to the students, “Do that. How much is six plus nine?”

The students say, “Six plus nine is fifteen”

Write on the board 15

Say to the students, “Have we done all of the steps. Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “So what is 6³ – 12 + 90 ÷ 10? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Fifteen.”

Task 9 – Order of Operation with Fractions

Write on the board. (8² – 4)

(12 ÷ 2 + 4)

Say to the students, “Read this problem. Ready.” Signal.

Students read, “Bracket eight squared minus four bracket over bracket twelve divided by two plus four.”

The students say, “Brackets.”

Say to the students, Correct. Are there any brackets in this problem? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “Yes.”

Say to the students, “Right. There are brackets. Let’s start with the brackets on the top part of the fraction. What are the numbers inside those brackets? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “Eight squared minus four.”

Say to the students, “Can you work this problem? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “No, we have to work the exponent first.”

Say to the students, “Good using your rule. You worked the brackets first, but you cannot do the subtraction because you have to do the exponent first. The E in B.E.D.M.A.S. comes before the S, so you have to do the Exponent before you can do the Subtraction. So let’s work the exponent. How much is 8²? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “Eight squared equals sixty-four.”

Write on the board 60 =

(12 ÷ 2 + 4)

Say to the students, “You got that right. What do you do next? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “ You subtract four from sixty-four.”

Say to the students, “Good job. What is sixty-four minus four? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, ” Sixty-four minus four equals sixty.”

What do we do next? Ready. Signal.

Students say, “We work with the bracket on the bottom part of the fraction.”

Say to the students, “Can we work the problem the way it is written? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “No. We have to do the division first.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. The D in B.E.D.M.A.S. comes before the S, so we have to do the division before we do the subtraction. What does the division problem say? Ready.”

Students say, “Twelve divided by two”

Say to the students, “How much is twelve divided by two? Ready.” Signal.

The students say, “Twelve divided by two equals six.”

Write on the board.

60

(6 + 4)

Say to the students, “What do we do next in this problem? Ready.” Signal.

Students say, “We add six plus four.”

Say to the students, “That’s correct. How much is six plus four? Ready. Signal.

The students say, “Six plus four equals ten.”

Say to the students, “Good. What do we do next?

The students say, “We divide ten into sixty.”

Say to the students, “That’s right. How much does sixty divided by ten equal?”

The students say, “Sixty divided by ten equals six.”

Say to the students, “So what does 8² – 4 equal?

(12 ÷ 2 + 4)

The students say, “Six”

Say to the students, “Nice work. That was a hard problem.

Now you are going to work the problems on the worksheet exercise. Remember to follow your formula to get each step done correctly.

A printable pdf version of the lesson including all worksheets is available for download. Click here to download the Teaching Order of Operations Complete Lesson pdf.

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Having been a teacher, a principal and a former school psychologist, I suggested to them that the diagnosis did little more than describe what was essentially a lack of effective teaching. Furthermore, it labelled their son in such a way as to put the problem squarely inside his head as though his brain was somehow defective and the condition was completely his responsibility.

I suggested also that we check his actual skills in reading, spelling and writing to determine what, if any, academic deficits he might have. I gave him a passage to read from a sixth grade reading program. He made 4 errors in the first 2 sentences that he attempted to read. Problem confirmed. So now we know that his schooling failed to teach him adequate reading skills. He is much like 35% of North American students who suffer with literacy issues. He could not tell me what a noun was, nor what the subjects or predicates of sentences were, nor could he correctly spell 3 of the six words in a spelling test. His cursive writing also needs work, but that comes later in the triage.

To demonstrate to his mother that he was capable of learning to spell, I taught him the “al” insertion rule and how it applies to the word “heroically”. He then generalized his application of the rule and correctly spelled “musically” and “logically” on the first attempt by applying his newly learned rule.

He is obviously perfectly capable of learning if someone teaches him well. This young man is another tragic example of academic child neglect. His schooling is failing him. He has gaping holes in his literacy skills, all of which are easily fixed with the right approach. Unfortunately, his teachers have never been well trained in such approaches. If his family were not supportive or did not have the discretionary income to afford a tutor, he would be a certain casualty of the school system’s neglect.

However, he is one of the fortunate ones. His parents will hire a college student as his tutor. I will train the tutor using Skype and the methods we have used for the past 45 years. The first step is to review his reading skills from start to finish, filling any gaps that his teachers have missed. Instruction in reading comprehension skills, spelling, grammar and comprehension will follow. Every program is a set of specific lessons which teach specific skills to a hard criterion. Each skill will be measured and recorded during each instructional session and charted so that the parents, tutor and student can see progress or the lack of it immediately. Program changes will be made based on the data. Data will be shared weekly by e-mail and more often if a problem arises.

**Prognosis**

Given my experience in training tutors to work with students like this, I can safely predict that my nephew’s son will complete catch up in terms of his literacy skills within the next two years.

__N. B. Do Not Blame His Teachers__

Having worked in both public education for a decade, and as a private, for-profit purveyor of educational service for 37 years** , I can guarantee that this failure cannot be laid at the feet of his teachers.** These teachers do not have the consistently successful systems that we use. They have never been exposed to the training my instructors get and these teachers rarely get much say about what and how they are expected to teach.

Additionally, our teachers are saddled with shoddy measurement tools which produce almost zero data from which any sound decision can be made. Most reports are anecdotal and largely based on opinion or judgement, other than short tests, the only tools these teachers have. They are doing the best they can with the tools that they have. I consider it a small miracle that they produce 65% of our students who do not suffer from literacy issues, although math skills are another story.

**The Latest Threat to Remedial Success**

And now our teachers are even less likely to be able to lay hands on the tools and training that has been the heart of our work for 40+ years. These tools have allowed us to provide a money-back guarantee with our services for 37 years. Recently, the What Works Clearinghouse, the U.S. Department of Education’s agency that distributes research information to school districts, decided independently and without explanation that no research that is more than 20 years old will be disseminated to school districts. That wipes out the sources of the three systems upon which our success has been built. It also throws over the side the single longest running, most comprehensive, most expensive, comparative research study ever done in North American education. As of now, scientific research has a “best-before” date.

**A Ray of Hope**

** **For the past 15 years on my website, www.maloneymethod.com, we have provided free testing for reading, free training for instructors and free lessons to help parents and teachers.

As a Rotarian, for the last decade, I helped to manage a literacy project in partnership with our local YMCA. The enrolment is set at about 25-30 underprivileged students with literacy issues. The program uses our system. Some of our tutors are junior and senior secondary school students, trained to deliver the instruction one hour per week. They are excellent tutors, which is a testament to the level of difficulty involved in providing the program. The daily data speaks volumes about their ability to teach some child to read.

There are literally millions of students suffering from academic child neglect. They are our future underemployed and unemployable citizens. They use huge amounts of social and medical services each and every year. The research has been available for years, and used successfully for years, but was largely ignored by district and state educational bureaucracies. It’s time to make a change for the benefit of all of North America.

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Almost every classroom has at least oneobstreperous student, many have several. Some teachers have or develop ways to deal with these students, others don’t. These students are often removed from class, sent to the principal’s office, suspended or even expelled. In many cases, they will be diagnosed with some condition, emotionally disturbed, ADHD, etc. Such a diagnosis plants the problem squarely inside the child and relieves the school of any real responsibility.

Sometimes, behavior modification is recommended. A program is designed and implemented and in many situations has little, if any, effect and after a brief sojourn, is abandoned. Behavior management programs are then discounted, put on the shelf and deemed not to work.

If one takes a closer, even more critical look at the process, a number of features typically stand out.

First and foremost, the program that was implemented was not a replication of one that is among the almost 100,000 reported research studies in the journals using behavior analysis to solve classroom behavior management problems.

· Secondly, the proposed program sprung full-blown and untested from the mind of some teacher, special education specialist or other consultant who in most cases, turns out not to have an extensive background in applied behavior management.

· Thirdly, and most critically, no data is collected with the procedure so that no data-based decisions can be employed to determine the program’s effectiveness.

· Finally, this is not a “behavior management program” at all, just an attempt to mimic what its originator thinks behavior management to be based on their limited knowledge and belief.

If you want to know whether of not the attempted remediation is, in fact, a “behavior management program”, ask to see the data.

Here’s the rule: No recorded data equals no behavior management program. Full stop. No exceptions.

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This is coming up soon! If you have registered, I look forward to having you in the class!

From the course description:

The Maloney Method combines behavioral approaches first synthesized by Michael Maloney, and Eric and Elizabeth Haughton beginning 45 years ago in Belleville. Ontario, Canada.

The Maloney Method was created as a method of learning objectives, student management, direct Instruction, measurement and practice. It has been successfully implemented to teach more than 100,000 students at-risk of school failure over the past five decades. It as been used with a wide spectrum of students despite their condition, age, labels and deficits and is quickly and easily learned, especially for those with a behavioral background.

**Begins August 27, 2018**

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It is naïve to pretend that science is free of bias and of political involvement. If it were, there would be no need for lobbyists in Washington from groups like the chemical and defense companies. “Science” may be conducted more for their benefit, than for its indisputable proofs. When influenced by “big tobacco”, some studies actually suggested that cigarettes did not cause cancer.

Across the course of history, scientists have been reviled for breaking faith with the conventional wisdom. Copernicus, Galen, Galileo, Semmelweiss, Darwin and many, many others have felt the wrath of power mongers who fear the change that new discovery brings. Sometimes, as in this case, the attacks are sophisticated, but nonetheless brutal in their effects.

Across North America today, there are 15 million students who are sufficiently behind in school that they can be considered illiterate. A high school student drops out every 16 seconds, usually out of frustration and hopelessness of anything resembling academic success. They proceed to fill our prisons, our unemployment lines and our welfare rolls.

For the last 40 years, there is and has been extensive research that points to methods that has been continuously successful at erasing illiteracy. These methods, Applied Behavior Analysis, Direct Instruction and Precision Teaching have been consistently unreported by the What Works Clearinghouse, the federal government’s educational disseminator of “effective” programs. This agency carries out “research” on available programs and includes or excludes them on the basis of their findings. Their recommendations become the guide for state governments and school districts to use in selecting educational programs.

According to author, Jean Stockard, for some completely unexplained reason, the What Works Clearinghouse arbitrarily decided to ignore any and all studies that were 20 or more years old. In so doing, they ignored two of the largest, most extensive studies ever done in special education; Project Follow Through and The Sacajewea Study. Now that’s good science wouldn’t you agree? Truth apparently now has a best-before date. 20 years tops. Who knew? Maybe the Law of Gravity will be repealed and retired.

In the 1970’s, Project Follow Through definitively established Direct Instruction as the most effective method of teaching basic skills to children at risk – bar none. It led in every category of the 1.2 billion dollar, 20 year research study.

The Sacajewea Project showed the doubling of basic skills in one year for thousands of students across 22 states when simple Precision Teaching measures were added to classroom practices.

Thousands of Applied Behavior Analysis studies that successfully managed classrooms suffered the same fate of being thrown under the bus.

As a result, the beneficial effects of three proven methods have been covered up because they run counter to the current philosophy and belief systems of a taxpayer-supported agency.

WWC understands the changes that promoting these methods would almost immediately bring to public education. Transparent accountability would become the order of the day. Parents could readily assess the academic progress of their children, or conversely, the lack of it.

Eighty percent of special education students would be taught sufficiently well in the primary grades so as to never need special education services… and that’s just the first couple of dominoes falling. Think about it. Who stands to gain? And equally importantly – Who stands to lose? And finally, what can be done about it? Pass it on. Help lift the cover.

**For the record**

For the last 40 years, I have used these systems within and without the public schools. They have consistently provided success for at-risk students. Since going into private practice 40 years ago, I have always provided my clients with a no-questions-asked money-back guarantee. They are perfectly capable of looking at the data on a chart and determining if progress is being made. If they doubt the data, they can actually run the same test independently of me or my staff. It provides complete transparency for everyone. Would you or anyone you know benefit from such methods?

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