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Recent Posts - SuSanA Forum Mon, 29 May 2017 09:29:59 +0200 Kunena Forum (Joomla) en-gb Assist NGO's & Municipal entities in developing sustainable Operation & Maintenance Plans for Rural sanitation - by: WayneB
Firstly, I would like to introduce myself, I am Wayne Birkholtz, Rural Water and Sanitation Specialist dealing in on-site disposal methods. I was a key member of a pilot project that received foreign funding to develop a “franchise” based approach to the O & M of sanitation at schools and municipalities. I have approximately 10-15 years of experience in the sanitation sector, and have assimilated a vast amount of information, as to what works and what does not work!
Should there be any NGO’s or municipal services that require assistance with the different forms of sanitation that they are using, or advice, please feel free to contact me.

Best Regards

Wayne Birkholtz
Eastern Cape
South Africa
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ]]>
Persons or companies offering their skills or products (and introductions) Sun, 28 May 2017 21:41:08 +0200
Clearing trash from pit latrines-A new device - by: dandreatta
Their solution was to use two devices, one for the trash and one for the more liquid contents. I don't think their liquid content device is ready to share yet, but I really like their trash pickup device. They call it "the crabtrap" because it looks like something you could also use for fishing for crabs, and I suppose you could with the right bait. A link to a youtube video is below, and I attach a few still photos to get people interested.

This device picks up bottles and similar objects, as well as just about any other kind of trash. I would have to think that the current "fishing" devices used to clear trash from pits work well on bags and rags but have great difficulty in picking up certain types of trash, such as bottles. Reportedly, such fishing devices are very dirty, particularly when getting the trash off the hooks.

The device you see here is a prototype, the final device would need to be more rugged and have some other small design changes. A finer screen might be an improvement to keep the condoms and small trash in the crabtrap. I told the students to assume the smallest possible squatting hole, a keyhole of 10 by 18 cm. Squatting holes that were even a little larger would allow a larger device which would be easier and faster than seen in the video. The size of the device could be set to match the smallest squatting hole locally. Some recent postings from Chiposa, Holm, et. al, suggest that squatting holes are usually much larger than seen here, at least in Malawi.

The video is at:

Thank you,

Dale Andreatta, Ph.D., P.E.
Mechanical Engineer
Adjunct Professor, The Ohio State University]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sun, 28 May 2017 17:30:56 +0200
Public cassete dry toilet in Kiev - by: Ecowaters Don't let the crates fill too high or they will be very heavy to remove, even after composting, I know this from experience.
I suspect this system will emanate odor.
Worms do not like the ammonia (or something else) of urine, but if they can get away from it, it can work.
I imagine you'll want a more enclosed system with a leachate drain.
I would install active ventilation.
Let us know how it's working in one year.]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, shared toilets Sat, 27 May 2017 21:43:57 +0200
A public urinal for women that is also a beautiful flowering garden - by: Ecowaters I find this is the only way to know the viability of a design and understand how to improve it.
Laurent's urinal works differently.]]>
Urinals Sat, 27 May 2017 21:32:45 +0200
What can we reliably say about pathogen removal with vermifilters? - by: muench

Hi Elisabeth,

I think the first thing to make clear is that we do not see the main purpose of the Tiger Toilet to be the production of compost for use on soil. In fact we have deliberately tried to minimise production of vermicompost so as to reduce the amount of maintenance for the user. Our current estimates are that it will be 8-10 years before any removal of vermicompost is necessary and the amounts involved will be quite small and not very useful to a farmer. Our oldest systems are over three years old and have not yet been emptied. The whole purpose of the Tiger Toilet is to provide safe, effective and low maintenance treatment of faecal waste for low income households ….we are not promoting re-use with this system.

We agree that there could be helminths present in the vermicompost and therefore would not advise using it as a soil conditioner without some kind of further treatment.

Kind regards,

Vermifilters (or vermi-digesters) Fri, 26 May 2017 23:42:32 +0200
Developing Markets for Sanitation: A Blog Series - by: campbelldb Sanitation Updates .

Developing Markets for Sanitation: A Blog Series

In response to the growing prevalence of market-based approaches to sanitation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened a meeting between three leading sanitation development practitioners—iDE, PSI, and Water for People—to discuss their experiences in building supply capacity and demand for sanitation products and services, and possibly develop a joint understanding of the process. The result of those discussions are presented in this four-part blog series.

PART 4 of 4: For the Future: Making Markets Work for Everybody
Read Part 1 of 4: The Basics: Terminology, Organization, and Process
Read Part 2 of 4: Selling Sanitation: Who Does What?
Read Part 3 of 4: Achieving Sustainability and Measuring Results]]>
New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Fri, 26 May 2017 18:14:32 +0200
*NEW* MHM briefs available from PMA2020: India (Rajasthan), Indonesia, Ghana and Kenya - by: aks0813
PMA2020 has a series of new briefs available on MHM from 2017, featuring data from state-level (Rajasthan) and national (Indonesia, Ghana and Kenya) surveys of women ages 15 - 49. These briefs offer a one-page snapshot of how menstrual hygiene is managed; the main environments where MHM is practiced; and the safety, privacy, and cleanliness of these environments, among other metrics.

Additional briefs featuring MHM findings from other program countries are forthcoming. We invite you to download and share the briefs (also attached). Note that Hindi and Bahasa Indonesian versions can be found on our website, here: .]]>
Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) Fri, 26 May 2017 15:44:31 +0200
Public cassete dry toilet in Kiev - by: BPopov
No, this is no-flush direct drop system. We will try with worms and see how it works. I haven't try to use the worms before but I know that others succesufully used them in the dry toilets.

Directing hand-washing grey water might be a good idea if we will need to do so in terms of flushing the urine our of crates a bit . However I'd keep the total effluent volume to the minimum or put a secondary filter down below before the soil infiltration.]]>
Public toilets, community toilets, shared toilets Thu, 25 May 2017 18:06:53 +0200
Recent WASH research - by: campbelldb
Each week we post a bibliography of recent WASH related research. Below are titles of this week's and links to the full text or abstracts are on Sanitation Updates .


- The science behind One Health: at the interface of humans, animals, and the environment. Annals NY Academy of Sciences, May 15, 2017.
- The threat of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries: causes and control strategies. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, May 15, 2017.
- Sustainability of community-led total sanitation outcomes: Evidence from Ethiopia and Ghana. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, May 2017.
- Assessing patterns and determinants of latrine use in rural settings: A longitudinal study in Odisha, India. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, May 2017.
- Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India. BMC Public Health, May 16, 2017.


- Predictors of drinking water boiling and bottled water consumption in rural China: A hierarchical modeling approach. Environ. Sci. Technol, May 20, 2017.
- Environmentally sustainable WASH? Current discourse, planetary boundaries and future directions. Jnl of WASH for Development, March 2017.


- John Oldfield- Water Is Global (In)Security. Forbes, May 23, 2017.
- Agencies Launch Water Monitoring Tools and Processes for SDG 6 Reporting. IISD, May 23, 2017.]]>
New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Thu, 25 May 2017 15:00:10 +0200
How do you get households to connect to existing sewer networks? - by: issantos
Connections are called regular when the following four conditions are identified, according to Brazil's national and local legislation:

1 - Sewage effluents are being layed in public sewage system;
2 - Rainwater is not been layed in public sewage system;
3 - Household is not using a septic tank;
4 - Household has a grease tank (trap) according to standards established in technical norms.

Whenever any of these situations above is not identifyed by the agents, it is considered irregular. Once notified, users have two weeks to resolve it. In case they don’t, municipal environmental agencies take other measures (notification) related to their responsibilities. No fees are established.

I'd be glad to know the results of your review. Thank you]]>
Sewers (conventional, simplified, condominium, settled, vacuum) Thu, 25 May 2017 14:16:19 +0200
How do you get households to connect to existing sewer networks? - by: meleesa
Some of these examples are covered here (in French only): ]]>
Sewers (conventional, simplified, condominium, settled, vacuum) Thu, 25 May 2017 13:37:51 +0200
How do you get households to connect to existing sewer networks? - by: meleesa
We have quite a few good examples from Brasil, including in Espiritu Santo and Sao Paulo. We would be happy to share with you and the SuSanA community the results of our review if it can be of use.

Many thanks and best wishes,
Sewers (conventional, simplified, condominium, settled, vacuum) Thu, 25 May 2017 13:32:53 +0200
Sphere revisions; The deadline is looming! - by: jonpar
Attached are the 2 standards that are probably of most relevance to SuSanA community; namely :

i) Excreta management standards; and
ii) WASH Hygiene standards

There are also other standards that many of us will be interested to review related to:

i) Vector control, solid waste management, water supply, and drainage; as well as
ii) Standards on WASH and nutrition, and WASH and health.

You will see the overall layout of the standards in the diagram in the file : "Changes in WASH standards" which compares the proposed standards with the previous ones.

Overall there is a lot to review but when broken down like this, there is not so much if we choose just to focus on 1 or a couple of standards to scrutinise.

Also attached is the information about the review process and the feedback form.

I am hopeful that those of us who are working in the humanitarian sector with a focus on disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response, will find to review and submit comments in the next few days.

The alternative is for members of the working group on Emergencies and Reconstruction Situations (WG8) to put forward their comments on the Forum to allow for some discussion prior to submission.

best regards,

Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience Thu, 25 May 2017 13:03:21 +0200
A public urinal for women that is also a beautiful flowering garden - by: canaday
Thank you for these questions, which I will answer below and hopefully resolve any doubts.

1) Would location be a problem?. How far would this women's urinal have to be from for instance a restaurant or a bus terminal?

It could be right next to a restaurant or in an open space within a bus station, since there would be no smell and there just has to be enough room for the plants that form the privacy walls. If hedges are used, more space would be needed than trellises with vines.

2) What about smell from this urinal when the weather is inclement or overcast?

There would be no smell in any weather, since the urine goes down a hose to the bottom of the tank, and the air that comes out of the tank has to filter through the soil of the flower planter, which would absorb any smell. In addition, since there is no roof, the wind would quickly whisk away any minor odors. Furthermore, Nadia Andreev, in Moldova, is working out ways to do fermentation with lactic acid bacteria in such urine tanks, which would acidify the urine and prevent the formation of smelly ammonia, which also makes it better fertilizer for plants (and more pleasant to spread on fields).

3) Where are they going to wash their hands (as women usually wipe themselves after urinating)?

There is a TippyTap in the design for handwashing and the water would sprinkle the plants in the flower planter. If there is running water, a pedal-operated valve would release water in a similar way. Paper and sanitary pads would go into the trash bin, which could also be a larger duct, in sites with lots of visitation.

4) Would Wurinatus attract male sex offenders?

No, this is actually one of the advantages of this design, since they can be located in highly visible, public places, and women would not have to go farther away from safe zones in order to find sufficient privacy. In fact, they could placed right next to homes, schools, businesses, bus stations, busy avenues, shopping centers, etc. Where possible, they could be located in clear view of places where guards and police stand (without being right next to them). These should be safer than conventional restrooms, since passersby and police can easily hear if there are unusual sounds coming from within.

5) Could you give more details on the Uritrottoir male urinal for sidewalks?

This was designed by the Faltazi company in France. It has a beautiful flower planter on top, while below there is a box of wheat straw or sawdust that absorbs the urine and is periodically taken to a composting facility. I would suggest that we could do something similar to the Wurinatu for men, only it would be simpler. Here is a very simple model:

Please let me know what you think ... and if you want help to make a Wurinatu.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urinals Thu, 25 May 2017 05:09:29 +0200
A public urinal for women that is also a beautiful flowering garden - by: kunene47 Regards
Lucas Kunene]]>
Urinals Thu, 25 May 2017 01:51:31 +0200
A public urinal for women that is also a beautiful flowering garden - by: kunene47 Lucas Kunene - new comer to the Forum]]> Urinals Thu, 25 May 2017 01:10:35 +0200 Sanitation Systems categories - by: Decentral I was not able to enter the discussion earlier, but considering that it is an important on-going exercise, decided to share my comments, as related to the current structure of the forum.
1. I have problem with the main definition of sanitation systems as per the main page of the website. Actually, all existing sanitation structures worldwide are included, but the site itself focuses mainly on existing practices and applications in developing countries. This is very clear by the number of posts and related topics. If this is not outlined, the area to be discussed becomes very wide and difficult to manage and categorize.
2. Different types of toilets cannot be categorized as a system. These are sanitation fixtures/appurtenances. On my point of view there is no need to separate in two chapters the urine diverting and the other types of toilets.
3. The “treatment processes…”:
3.1 Treatment processes and treatment technologies are different topics, so I suggest this chapter to be formulated as: “Treatment and disposal technologies for…..
3.2 There are not centralized or decentralized treatment processes or technologies, so I suggest these two to be deleted.
3.3 I suggest two additions to this chapter: aerobic technologies and stabilization ponds
4. The chapter “various topics…”, would sound better as: “various topics related to sanitation systems”
4.1 I see some overlapping between “resilience “and the “climate change” issues in the following chapter.
4.2 I do not understand well - a very serious problem, such as “wastewater characterization (in terms of quantity and quality)” is almost neglected in this forum. No treatment technology can work properly if the loads are not estimated correctly or close to it. Therefore, I suggest an additional chapter: “Wastewater characterization and conveyance (“sewers”)
4.3 Storm water management is also a very important issue related to sanitation systems, but I am not sure in which chapter to go, in this one, or may be with the flooding issues.
4.3 The topic: “drinking water treatment” is totally unrelated to sanitation systems and should be removed (sorry, if somebody disagree)
5. I agree the water reuse issue to be part of resource recovery, but people tend to forget that you have to produce (treat the wastewater) the water, which will be reused, therefore sanitation systems are linked to water reuse systems.]]>
Your suggestions for improvements of the forum Wed, 24 May 2017 21:42:07 +0200
Our Discussion Forum now has a better search function. - Do you like it? - by: muench
I am now suggesting that we drop that second option to simplify things. Would anyone miss it if it was no longer there? Do you use that "detailed search option" of Kunena or are you happy with us providing only the Google site searches?

Any feedback would be appreciated.

If nobody says within a week or so that they would prefer to keep the "detailed forum search" then we will drop it .

Questions about using the forum Wed, 24 May 2017 16:38:33 +0200
Call for Partners and Collaborators for the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme. - by: pave
The Pan African Vision for the Environment (PAVE) is a Lagos based non profit, non-political, non-governmental organization established with the aim of promoting sustainable development through research, documentation, policy dialogues, workshops, advocacy and consultancy services. PAVE deals with development issues in their environmental and socio-economic aspects with emphasis on the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets regarding water and sanitation and other related human settlement issues including Agricultural Value Chain promotion, Gender, Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate change and Clean Energy promotion, Waste Management including E-Waste and Chemical Management and stakeholder engagement. PAVE is registered (IT/NO: 26029) with the Corporate Affairs Commission in Nigeria

The chosen mission of PAVE is to act as a catalyst, mobilize, mediate and act directly in several of society’s processes dealing with the improvement of quality of life and respect for cultural and biological diversity. As its basis, PAVE believes in promoting good governance at all level, across all sectors, be it public or private. PAVE also believes in a democratic system for managing human interests.

The fundamental objective of PAVE is to act, support and collaborate in the elaboration and dissemination of new approaches, policies and activities related to human development questions.

We have over 15years experience in the development sector and work at the local, national, regional and international level. We have presented papers conducted researches and organized capacity building workshops on various sustainable development thematic areas in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America.

We need funding for the following activities:

The Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme would give special emphasis to capacity building, particularly to training of teachers and facilitators, development of learning materials,

a 30mins television and Radio programme “Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme”. Similarly, a weekly column “Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme” in a Nation wide newspaper will also be established.

1.To establish the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme and Resource/ Documentation Centre.
2.To establish the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme /Official launch of the Programme.
3.To draw up State implementation strategies for the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme
4.To write, localize, print and distribute the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme Curriculum and Activity Guide
5. Initiation of teacher training and development programmes to build teaching capacity
6. Provide logistical support to schools and communities
7. To incorporate water education into on-going non-formal education programme
8. To establish a method of communicating with educators and resource specialists throughout the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme network.
9.To build the capacity of the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme for effective service delivery


Looking for funding, partners, research topics or other types of support Wed, 24 May 2017 15:00:05 +0200
Call for Partners and Collaborators for the Nigeria Water Education for Schools and Communities Programme. - by: canaday
I read your document, but please fill us in a bit more on your organization and your plans. How many people are in your organization? Is it private, public, or mixed? Do you have strong contacts with the media (TV, radio, newspapers, internet, cell phone companies)? I think a lot can be done via educational campaigns, potentially in combination with prizes for those who apply the imparted information to improve their water and sanitation. Donors may be interested in providing these prizes. Have you contacted the embassies of different countries in Nigeria? Please explain here on the Forum what specifically you would like funding for, since some Forum members work in funding organizations.

I look forward to learning more about your programme.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Looking for funding, partners, research topics or other types of support Wed, 24 May 2017 14:43:38 +0200