We consider a queueing system with batch Poisson arrivals subject to disasters which occur independently according to a Poisson process but affect the system only when the server is busy, in which case the system is cleared of all customers. Following a disaster that affects the system, the server initiates a repair period during which arriving customers accumulate without receiving service. The server operates under a Multiple Adapted Vacation policy. The stationary regime of this process is analyzed using the supplementary variables method. We obtain the probability generating function of the number of customers in the system, the fraction of customers who complete service, and the Laplace transform of the system time of a typical customer in stationarity. The stability condition for the system and the Laplace transform of the time between two consecutive disasters affecting the system is obtained by analyzing an embedded Markov renewal process. The statistical characteristics of the batches that complete service without being affected by disasters and those of the partially served batches are also derived. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics, 2015

Consider a repeated newsvendor problem for managing the inventory of perishable products. When the parameter of the demand distribution is unknown, it has been shown that the traditional separated estimation and optimization (SEO) approach could lead to suboptimality. To address this issue, an integrated approach called operational statistics (OS) was developed by Chu et al., *Oper Res Lett* 36 (2008) 110–116. In this note, we first study the properties of this approach and compare its performance with that of the traditional SEO approach. It is shown that OS is consistent and superior to SEO. The benefit of using OS is larger when the demand variability is higher. We then generalize OS to the risk-averse case under the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) criterion. To model risk from both demand sampling and future demand uncertainty, we introduce a new criterion, called the total CVaR, and find the optimal OS under this new criterion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics, 2015

We consider a loss system with a fixed budget for servers. The system owner's problem is choosing the price, and selecting the number and quality of the servers, in order to maximize profits, subject to a budget constraint. We solve the problem with identical and different service rates as well as with preemptive and nonpreemptive policies. In addition, when the policy is preemptive, we prove the following conservation law: the distribution of the total service time for a customer entering the slowest server is hyperexponential with expectation equal to the average service rate independent of the allocation of the capacity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics 62: 81–97, 2015

It is known that the proportionate flow shop minimum makespan problem is solved optimally by any permutation job sequence. We show that the problem is at least ordinary NP-hard when missing operations are allowed and present some solvable cases. We then consider the standard proportionate flow shop problem (with no missing operations) and show that the solution algorithms for a class of single-machine due date assignment problems can be extended/generalized to the corresponding proportionate flow shop problems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics 62: 98–106, 2015

This article studies the inventory competition under yield uncertainty. Two firms with random yield compete for substitutable demand: If one firm suffers a stockout, which can be caused by yield failure, its unsatisfied customers may switch to its competitor. We first study the case in which two competing firms decide order quantities based on the exogenous reliability levels. The results from the traditional inventory competition are generalized to the case with yield uncertainty and we find that quantity and reliability can be complementary instruments in the competition. Furthermore, we allow the firms to endogenously improve their yield reliability before competing in quantity. We show that the reliability game is submodular under some assumptions. The results indicate that the competition in quantity can discourage the reliability improvement. With an extensive numerical study, we also demonstrate the robustness of our analytical results in more general settings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics 62: 107–126, 2015

In the field of nanofabrication, engineers often face unique challenges in resource-limited experimental budgets, the sensitive nature of process behavior with respect to controllable variables, and highly demanding tolerance requirements. To effectively overcome these challenges, this article proposes a methodology for a sequential design of experiments through batches of experimental runs, aptly named Layers of Experiments with Adaptive Combined Design (LoE/ACD). In higher layers, where process behavior is less understood, experimental regions cover more design space and data points are more spread out. In lower layers, experimental regions are more focused to improve understanding of process sensitivities in a local, data-rich environment. The experimental design is a combination of a space-filling and an optimal design with a tuning parameter that is dependent on the amount of information accumulated over the various layers. The proposed LoE/ACD method is applied to optimize a carbon dioxide (epet-CO2) assisted deposition process for fabricating silver nanoparticles with pressure and temperature variables. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics 62: 127–142, 2015

The existing product line design literature devotes little attention to the effect of demand uncertainty. Due to demand uncertainty, the supply-demand mismatch is inevitable which leads to different degrees of lost sales depending on the configuration of product lines. In this article, we adopt a stylized two-segment setup with uncertain market sizes and illustrate the interplay between two effects: risk pooling that mitigates the impact of demand uncertainty and market segmentation that facilitates consumer differentiation. Compared to downward substitution, inducing bidirectional substitution through product line decisions including quality levels and prices can yield greater risk pooling effects. However, we show that the additional benefit from the risk pooling effect cannot compensate for the reduced market segmentation effect. We demonstrate that the presence of demand uncertainty can reduce the benefit of market segmentation and therefore the length of product lines in terms of the difference between products. We also propose three heuristics that separate product line and production decisions; each of these heuristics corresponds to one particular form of demand substitution. Our numerical studies indicate that the best of the three heuristics yields performance that is close to optimality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics 62: 143–157, 2015

In Assemble-To-Order (ATO) systems, situations may arise in which customer demand must be backlogged due to a shortage of some components, leaving available stock of other components unused. Such unused component stock is called remnant stock. Remnant stock is a consequence of both component ordering decisions and decisions regarding allocation of components to end-product demand. In this article, we examine periodic-review ATO systems under linear holding and backlogging costs with a component installation stock policy and a First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) allocation policy. We show that the FCFS allocation policy decouples the problem of optimal component allocation over time into deterministic period-by-period optimal component allocation problems. We denote the optimal allocation of components to end-product demand as multimatching. We solve the multi-matching problem by an iterative algorithm. In addition, an approximation scheme for the joint replenishment and allocation optimization problem with both upper and lower bounds is proposed. Numerical experiments for base-stock component replenishment policies show that under optimal base-stock policies and optimal allocation, remnant stock holding costs must be taken into account. Finally, joint optimization incorporating optimal FCFS component allocation is valuable because it provides a benchmark against which heuristic methods can be compared. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Naval Research Logistics 62: 158–169, 2015