Asian Science Citation Index https://www.scialert.net/asci Asian Science Citation Index en-us Asian Science Citation Index Wed, 26 Jun 2019 18:11:57 +0200 Wed, 26 Jun 2019 18:14:14 +0200 RssPublisher 0.2.0 beta ../images/logo.gif ASCI https://scialert.net/asci 37 155 Asian Science Citation Index <![CDATA[Psychiatric Residents' Self-Assessment of Teaching Knowledge and Skills Following a Brief "Psychiatric Residents-as-Teachers" Course: A Pilot Study]]> OBJECTIVE: Resident physicians have an important role in medical student teaching. There has been limited curriculum development in this area for general psychiatric residents. A 4-hour workshop for PGY-2 psychiatric residents was designed and implemented to improve residents&rsquo; self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum and core teaching skills. METHODS: Residents completed pre- and postcourse self-assessments of their knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values about teaching. Descriptive statistics were obtained on pre- and postcourse data and were analyzed using t tests assuming unequal variance. RESULTS: Following course participation, there was statistically significant improvement in residents&rsquo; self-assessment of their knowledge of the medical student curriculum (p&le;0.001), their self-assessment regarding perception of peers&rsquo; view of their teaching ability (p&le;0.02), and their perceived knowledge of various teaching methods (p&le;0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a brief workshop may enhance psychiatric residents&rsquo; self-assessment of teaching knowledge and skills.

]]>
2010-06-01
<![CDATA[Effect of contamination of pasture with military explosives on grazing behaviour in shee]]> 2011-03-01 <![CDATA[Cleaning heavy metal contaminated soil with soluble humic substances instead of synthetic polycarboxylic acids]]> 2011-06-01 <![CDATA[Marginal stability analysis on salt-fingers convection with parabolic temperature and salinity profiles]]> ), the critical wave number (ac) and the couple disturbed local depth under the stationary stability analysis are also shown in this work. From the result of overstability analysis, it shows that oscillatory motion of salt-fingers convection will be triggered under a certain definite characteristic frequency. In overstability, it provoke restoring forces so strong as to overshoot the corresponding position on the other side of equilibrium for case of coupled disturbance in the upper layer of ocean.]]> 2009-03-01 <![CDATA[Therapeutic effect of artemisinin on lupus nephritis mice and its mechanisms]]> In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of artemisinin (Art) on lupus nephritis mice and its mechanisms by comparing the differences between lupus nephritis (LN) mice given Art and control mice in molecular biology, immunohistochemistry, and histopathology. The results showed that Art could remarkably relieve the symptoms, decrease the level of urine protein/24 h, and alleviate pathological renal lesions. The differences among the four groups in the expression of the NF-Bp65 protein, nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activity, and the expression of transforming growth factor-&beta;1 (TGF-&beta;1) mRNA in renal tissue suggested that Art can lower the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and inhibit the expression of the NF-Bp65 protein and NF-B and TGF-&beta;1 mRNA in the renal tissues of LN mice. These results proved that it is reliable and effective to use Art to treat LN mice, and its therapeutic mechanisms should closely be related to the fact that Art can obviously decrease the serum levels of TNF- and IL-6 and down-regulate the expression of the NF-Bp65 protein and NF-B and TGF-&beta;1 mRNA in renal tissues.

]]>
2010-12-01
<![CDATA[Regulation of material properties in electrospun scaffolds: Role of cross-linking and fiber tertiary structure]]> 2009-01-01 <![CDATA[Peer substance involvement modifies genetic influences on regular substance involvement in young women]]> Aims Peer substance involvement (PSI) is a robust correlate of adolescent substance use. A small number of genetically informative studies suggest that shared genetic and environmental factors contribute to this association. We examine mechanisms by which PSI influences the etiology of regular substance involvement (RSI), particularly in women. Design Population-based cohort study of twin women from the US Midwest. Participants 2176 twin women. Measurements To examine the relationship between self-reported PSI during adolescence and a composite RSI representing regular tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use during young adulthood, using genetically informative correlation, moderation and joint correlation-moderation models. Findings There was evidence for a significant additive genetic X environment interaction. PSI was moderately heritable (h2=0.25). Genetic, shared and non-shared influences on RSI overlapped with influences on PSI (genetic correlation of 0.43). Even after controlling for these shared genetic influences, RSI was more heritable in those reporting greater PSI. Conclusions While young women may select peers based on certain dispositional traits (e.g. permissiveness towards substance use), the social milieu constructed by PSI does modify the architecture of increased RSI in those individuals with increasing levels of PSI being associated with stronger expression of heritable influences.]]> 2010-10-01 <![CDATA[Use of smoking reduction strategies among U.S. tobacco quitlines]]> Introduction: Tobacco quitlines (QLs) are efficacious and have assisted many smokers in achieving tobacco abstinence. However, most smokers are not able to achieve tobacco abstinence with QL services. QL counseling interventions for smokers who do not quit on their target quit date (TQD) and decline to set a new TQD after missing their TQD have not been systematically evaluated. Methods: A telephone survey of tobacco QLs in the United States (US) was conducted to examine systematic approaches used with smokers who do not quit on their TQD and decline to set a new TQD. Tobacco QLs service providers were identified through the North American Quitline Consortium (NAQC). Results: Fourteen service providers managing QLs of all 50 US states were identified and completed the voluntary survey. All providers recommended setting a new quit TQD if smokers did not achieve smoking cessation by their initial TQD. Six percent of US state QLs used brief motivational interviewing utilizing the &#147;5R&#146;s&#148; (relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, repetition). However, 90% of QLs had intervention protocols emphasizing smoking rate reduction. Conclusion: Although some US QLs utilized the &#147;5Rs,&#148; the majority provided smoking reduction interventions for smokers not achieving tobacco cessation by their initial TQD and declining to set a new TQD. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of smoking rate reduction methods implemented through QLs for increasing smoking abstinence rates.]]> 2012-04-01 <![CDATA[A Synthesis of New Perspectives on Virtual HRD]]> The Problem A number of new perspectives of virtual human resource development (VHRD) have been provided in this issue of Advances in Developing Human Resources (ADHR) that warrant further discussion. As VHRD is still a nascent area of inquiry in HRD, professionals need more explanatory examples and solutions to consider for determining their own role in working with people and technology.

The Solution This article offers a synthesis of key constructs of VHRD from the articles in this special issue. Also, it provides a discussion around two different modes of technology development (TD) needed by HRD professionals in the contemporary technology-enabled environment afforded by VHRD. And, the integration of TD in addition to career development, training and development, and organization development is essential to the future of HRD and is discussed herein.

The Stakeholders This article targets primarily practitioners interested in VHRD interventions and processes. It encourages the reader to examine the commonalities across the articles in this issue of ADHR and also to consider the new skills required for HRD professionals when seeking to align organizational mission with all levels of the organization.]]> 2014-03-01 <![CDATA[Generic combinatorial rigidity of periodic frameworks]]> planar periodic frameworks. The characterization is a true analogue of the Maxwell&#150;Laman Theorem from rigidity theory: it is stated in terms of a finite combinatorial object and the conditions are checkable by polynomial time combinatorial algorithms.

To prove our rigidity theorem we introduce and develop periodic direction networks and Z2-graded-sparse colored graphs.]]> 2013-01-01 <![CDATA[The interface between general and forensic psychiatry: the present day]]> 2014-05-01 <![CDATA[Quasi-biennial oscillation signals in outgoing long-wave radiation of the equator]]> 2010-11-01 <![CDATA[Incidence of ischaemic stroke according to income level among older people: the 3C study]]> Background: stroke has been shown to follow a social gradient with incidence rising as socioeconomic status decreases.

Objective: to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and ischaemic stroke risk amongst older people.

Setting: the Cities of Bordeaux, Dijon and Montpellier in France.

Subjects and methods: nine thousand and two hundred and ninety-four non-institutionalised persons aged 65 years or more followed for 6 years.

Results: the distribution of cardiovascular risks factors was consistent with the classical finding of more favourable risk profiles among the advantaged socioeconomic groups. One hundred and thirty-six individuals developed a first ever ischaemic stroke (incidence rate: 3.2 per 1,000 py (person-years), 95% CI 2.7&ndash;3.8). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of ischaemic stroke increased with increasing level of income (from 2.4 to 4.1 per 1,000 py, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.04). In the multivariable analysis adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, the higher income group displayed a 80% increased risk of ischaemic stroke compared with less wealthy participants (hazards ratio 1.77, 95% CI 1.20&ndash;2.61).

Conclusions: in this community-based sample of older individuals, a higher level of household income was associated with a higher risk of ischaemic stroke, a reversal of the social gradient usually reported in younger age groups. Selective survival is one of the potential explanations for this unexpected finding.

]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Water access, farm productivity, and farm household income: Sri Lanka&#146;s Kirindi Oya irrigation system]]> 2014-05-01 <![CDATA[Grain Storage and Pest Management by Smallholders in Some Localities of North-West Region, Cameroon]]> 2019-03-01 <![CDATA[Seed Priming of Winter Annual Cover Crops Improves Germination and Emergence]]> Secale cereale L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), and oriental mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A logistic function modeled response was used to quantify onset of germination, time to 50% germination (t50), maximum germination rate, final germination percentage (K), seedling emergence, and establishment in laboratory germination paper and soil core assays. Rye seed germinated rapidly regardless of priming treatment. Under the optimum environmental conditions of a laboratory germination assay, the smallest seeded cover crop, perennial ryegrass, was the only species to show a final germination response that was higher in primed (86%) than untreated seed (78%). However, seed germination rates of three species were influenced by priming: 50% germination was reached 8, 6, and 9 h earlier in hairy vetch, mustard, and perennial ryegrass, respectively. Compacted soil assays showed that priming (24 h) improved seedling emergence by 36% and 57% for hairy vetch and perennial ryegrass, respectively, compared with untreated seed. These results were consistent across experiment runs. Seed priming shows promise as a new technology for improving cover crop establishment in compacted soil. ]]> 2008-05-01 <![CDATA[Limited predictive ability of surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in Asian-Indian men]]> Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in Asian Indians and contributes to worldwide public health problems, including diabetes and related disorders. Surrogate measurements of insulin sensitivity/resistance are used frequently to study Asian Indians, but these are not formally validated in this population. In this study, we compared the ability of simple surrogate indices to accurately predict insulin sensitivity as determined by the reference glucose clamp method. In this cross-sectional study of Asian-Indian men (n = 70), we used a calibration model to assess the ability of simple surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity [quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR), fasting insulin-to-glucose ratio (FIGR), and fasting insulin (FI)] to predict an insulin sensitivity index derived from the reference glucose clamp method (SIClamp). Predictive accuracy was assessed by both root mean squared error (RMSE) of prediction as well as leave-one-out cross-validation-type RMSE of prediction (CVPE). QUICKI, FIGR, and FI, but not HOMA2-IR, had modest linear correlations with SIClamp (QUICKI: r = 0.36; FIGR: r = &ndash;0.36; FI: r = &ndash;0.27; P &lt; 0.05). No significant differences were noted among CVPE or RMSE from any of the surrogate indices when compared with QUICKI. Surrogate measurements of insulin sensitivity/resistance such as QUICKI, FIGR, and FI are easily obtainable in large clinical studies, but these may only be useful as secondary outcome measurements in assessing insulin sensitivity/resistance in clinical studies of Asian Indians.

]]>
2010-06-01
<![CDATA[Cardiovascular responses to microinjections of urocortins into the NTS: role of inotropic glutamate receptors]]> Urocortin 1 (Ucn1) and urocortin 3 (Ucn3) are new members of the corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family. Ucn1 is a ligand for both the CRF type 1 receptors (CRF1Rs) and the CRF type 2 receptors (CRF2Rs), whereas Ucn3 is a high-affinity ligand for the CRF2Rs. Recently, we reported that Ucn3 microinjections into the medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) elicit decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) (Nakamura T, Kawabe K, Sapru HN. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296: H325&ndash;H332, 2009). The presence of CRF2Rs on afferent terminals has been reported in the mNTS of the rat. It was hypothesized that activation of CRF2Rs on afferent terminals in the mNTS may release glutamate, which, in turn, may elicit decreases in MAP and HR via activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLURs). This hypothesis was tested in urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated, adult male Wistar rats. Microinjections (100 nl) of Ucn1 (0.12 mM) into the mNTS elicited decreases in MAP and HR. The responses were partially blocked by microinjections of iGLUR antagonists into the mNTS. On the other hand, the decreases in MAP and HR elicited by microinjections of Ucn3 (0.06 mM) into the mNTS were completely blocked by microinjections of iGLUR antagonists into the mNTS. These results indicate that activation of CRF2Rs in the mNTS, by Ucn1 and Ucn3, releases glutamate, which, in turn, elicits decreases in MAP and HR via activation of iGLURs.

]]>
2009-06-01
<![CDATA[Isolation of murine lung endothelial cells]]> Several protocols for the isolation of endothelial cells (ECs) from murine lung have been described in the literature. We, however, encountered a number of problems while using these procedures that prevented us from consistently or reliably obtaining pure populations of ECs from the lungs of mice. By incorporating specific elements from previously published protocols, as well as adding some novel features, we developed a new strategy for isolating ECs from murine lung. In this approach, a suspension of lung cells is initially prepared from the lungs of 7- to 14-day-old mouse pups using procedures that prevent intravascular clotting and leukocyte activation, minimize mechanical trauma to the lung tissue, and limit exposure to the digesting enzymes. The resulting cell suspension is cultured for 2&ndash;3 days, trypsinized to produce a suspension of single cells, and then subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting using an anti-ICAM-2 antibody. The sorted cells are then plated and split 1:2 at each passage to maintain a high density of the cells. Using this approach, we have been able to isolate pure populations of ECs that were sustainable for extended periods in culture without the emergence of fibroblast overgrowth or the development of senescence. We believe the success of this approach will provide opportunities to take advantage of the large and growing number of knockout and transgenic mouse lines to investigate the endothelial-specific roles of targeted molecules in the pulmonary vasculature.

]]>
2009-06-01
<![CDATA[Swelling and pressure-volume relationships in the dermis measured by osmotic-stress technique]]> P = 0.012, paired t-test, n = 7). Volume changes observed in response to pressure potential were reversible. The equation, Volume change = Vmax/[1+(time/T1/2)d], where Vmax is maximal volume change; T1/2, time at volume = 1/2 Vmax; and d, a rate parameter, was fitted to experimental progression curves (r2 > 0.9), yielding Vmax values linearly related to pressure, with mean slopes –3.5 ± 0.28 and –2.6 ± 0.21(SE) µl·g–1·mmHg–1 at 4°C and 37°C. NMR spin-spin relaxation times (T2) varied within 200- to 400-µm distances in directions perpendicular to the epidermis, with slopes reaching 0.03 ms/µm. Results support a mechanism in which fluid transport across the ECM is locally regulated at micrometer scales by cell- and fiber-gel-dependent osmomechanical forces. The large HP helps to explain the fast interstitial in/out flow rates observed clinically.]]> 2009-06-01 <![CDATA[Electrohydraulic pump-driven closed-loop blood pressure-regulatory system]]> In this paper, we describe our design for a new electrohydraulic (EH) pump-driven renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-regulatory system capable of implementing precise and rapid RPP regulation in experimental animals. Without this automated system, RPP is manually controlled via a blood pressure clamp, and the imprecision in this method leads to compromised RPP data. This motivated us to develop an EH pump-driven closed-loop blood pressure regulatory system based on flow-mediated occlusion using the vascular occlusive cuff technique. A closed-loop servo-controller system based on a proportional plus integral (PI) controller was designed using the dynamic feedback RPP signal from animals. In vivo performance was evaluated via flow-mediated RPP occlusion, maintenance, and release responses during baseline and ANG II-infused conditions. A step change of &ndash;30 mmHg, referenced to normal RPP, was applied to Sprague-Dawley rats with the proposed system to assess the performance of the PI controller. The PI's performance was compared against manual control of blood pressure clamp to regulate RPP. Rapid RPP occlusion (within 3 s) and a release time of ~0.3 s were obtained for the PI controller for both baseline and ANG II infusion conditions, in which the former condition was significantly better than manual control. We concluded that the proposed EH RPP-regulatory system could fulfill in vivo needs to study various pressure-flow relationships in diverse fields of physiology, in particular, studying the dynamics of the renal autoregulatory mechanisms.

]]>
2009-06-01
<![CDATA[A New Measure of Alcohol Affordability for the UK]]> Aims: To present revisions to the official UK measure of alcohol affordability published by the National Health Service (NHS) Information Centre. The revisions address the following problems in the official measure:
  • (a)&nbsp;The income measure used in the calculation is a measure of the income for the whole population of the UK, not income per capita.

  • (b)&nbsp;The income measure includes &lsquo;imaginary&rsquo; items, namely imputed rentals and attributed income from insurance policies.

  • (c)&nbsp;The income measure is inconsistent in its treatment of housing costs.

  • (d)&nbsp;The adjustment for inflation makes the measure unnecessarily complex and can have counter-intuitive effects.

  • Methods: The revised measure has the same essential structure as the NHS measure, being the ratio of income to price of alcohol. Adjustments were applied to official income figures, and adjustments for inflation were removed. Results: The revised measure shows that affordability has levelled off since 2003, in contrast to the NHS measure, which shows it continuing to rise until 2008. Conclusion: The revised measure corrects a basic error of failing to divide total income for the UK by number of people in the population. This alters the measure but is more correct. Further improvements result in a measure that correlates more closely with UK alcohol consumption over the last decade.

    ]]>
    2010-06-01
    <![CDATA[&#946;-Site amyloid precursor protein&#150;cleaving enzyme 1 activity is related to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of sortilin-related receptor with A-type repeats, soluble amyloid precursor protein, and tau]]> 2013-04-01 <![CDATA[From Electioneering to Governing: Obama's Transition as Legitimation Ritual]]> This essay reviews Barack Obama&rsquo;s 2008-2009 transition from president-elect to president. Not only must the new and old presidents coordinate practical, bureaucratic matters, but in the United States, the president-elect is put through an 11-week legitimation ritual. As his status is transformed from campaigner to president, his words and actions in various situations are viewed as tests of strengths, weaknesses, vision, prudence, negotiative skill, humanity, fiber, and resolve. Not only is he tested but his words and actions are read by the press, commentators, and bloggers as signs of good or bad fortune for the country, just as the augurs of old read natural signs before momentous events. In general, Obama passed the tests and for the most part, an era of good fortune was predicted.

    ]]>
    2010-04-01
    <![CDATA[Effect of Some Fermentation Parameters on Ethanol Production from Beet Molasses by <I>Saccharomyces cerevisiae </I>CAIM13]]> Problem statement: Some component of fermentation medium showed to reduce the Saccharomyces cerivisae production of ethanol. Approach: This study was designed to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters in affecting ethanol productivity from beet molasses BM by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAIM13. Results: Increase in cell concentration (inoculums size) of the yeast above 3.6x105 cells/100 mL decreased the ethanol yield. The yeast could tolerate ethanol concentration up to 10% but failed to grow at concentration of 12 and 15%. Employment of a bench-scale tank fermenter enhanced the fermentation efficiency. 77% of BM sugars were assimilated after 48h giving a concentration of 5.4% ethanol. Utilization of a cell-recycling technique showed that the tested organism was capable of performing four fermentation cycles. The mud-free, H2SO4-treated beet molasses TBM was superior to sucrose in the repeated batch fermentation technique. A continuous-flow fermentation technique employing immobilized yeast cells yielded maximum ethanol productivity after 6 days. Conclusion: The present investigation has demonstrated the importance of some fermentation parameters in improving the alcoholic fermentation technology of BM. When free cells of S. cerevisiae. In the case of immobilized cells, the continuous-flow technique speared superior to the repeated batch-fermentation technique in production of alcohol from TBM.]]> 2011-02-01 <![CDATA[Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Functional Performance in Moderate to Severe Dementia--Interim Results]]> Dementia is a growing problem worldwide and interventions to effectively manage and promote function are urgently required. Multisensory environments (MSEs) have been used extensively with people with dementia; however, no studies have been conducted to explore the efficacy of sensory stimulation on functional performance. This study explores to what extent multisensory stimulation influences functional performance in people with moderate-to-severe dementia using an MSE compared with a control activity. Thirty participants with moderate-to-severe dementia were recruited from the South of England. Following baseline assessment and design of a bespoke intervention, each participant attended their allocated intervention (3 x week, for 4 weeks). Assessments were carried out pre and postsession using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Results indicate significant improvement in functional performance in both the MSE and the control activity. Findings support the use of MSEs as a strategy for enhancing functional performance in dementia.

    ]]>
    2010-08-01
    <![CDATA[The Effect of Heat or Heat-Xylose Processing on Nitrogen Fractions and <I>in Situ</I>/<I>In Vitro</I> Ruminal and Post-Ruminal Protein Disappearance of Guar Meal]]> Problem statement: Guar meal is a by-product consisting of hull and germ and is mostly used as a protein source in poultry and ruminant rations. The aim was to determine the effect of heat or heat-xylose processing on nitrogen fractions, in situ ruminal degradation parameters and in situ/in vitro ruminal and post-ruminal disappearance of guar meal. Approach: Samples were intact Guar Meal (GM), heat processed GM (GMhp, GM was heated at 100&deg;C for 45 minute using industrial heater) and heat-xylose processed GM (GMhx, xylose was included in GM to give a final concentration of 10 g kg-1 DM, then was heat processed at 100&deg;C for 45 minute using industrial heater). Ruminal degradation parameters of DM and Crude Protein (CP) were determined by in situ technique using four ruminally fistulated sheep. Post-ruminal disappearance of ruminal-undegradable CP was determined on residue from 16 h ruminal incubation of guar meal samples by three-step in situ/in vitro enzymatic procedure. Results: Non-protein nitrogen of the GMhx and GM samples ranged from 218-319 (g kg-1 N). Acid detergents insoluble nitrogen concentration of both GM and GMhp was significantly lower than that of GMhx (10.3, 11.29 and 18.53 g kg-1 nitrogen, respectively). In situ fractional degradation rate constant (c) of DM and CP was significantly decreased as a result of heat-xylose processing. Effective crude protein degradability of GMhp and GMhx was higher than that of GM. Post-ruminal disappearance of ruminal-undegradable CP of GM hx (0.965) was significantly higher compared with GM and GMhp (0.918 and 0.906, respectively). Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrated that heat and heat-xylose processing might effectively protect the DM and CP of guar meal from ruminal degradation.]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[Field Programmable Gate Arrays Based Realization of Truncated Multipliers]]> Problem statement: Due to high cost and non reconfiguration of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) in image processing applications, for example MPEG video compression used in CT scan frames requires real time conditions and the algorithms should be verified and optimized before implementation. Approach: Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) provides reconfiguration and implementation at the same time. Results: The implementation results of truncated multipliers on Sparatn-3An FPGA showed significant improvement as compared to Virtex and Virtex-E FPGA devices. Conclusion: Truncated multipliers can be used in medical imaging technology such as CT scan.]]> 2011-07-01 <![CDATA[Modeling Growth of Microalgae <I>Dunaliella Salina</I> under Different Nutritional Conditions]]> Problem statement: The aim of this study was to find the empirical model that describes the growth kinetics of Dunaliella salina, with low production cost and to estimate parameters of this model. Approach: In this study the strain of D. salina UTEX 200 was cultivated in seawater (0.5 M NaCl) at room temperature with agitation of 150 rpm and luminous intensity of 60 mmols.m-2.s-1. The synthetic medium AS100 (0.2 M NaCl) was used in this study for comparison purposes and in order to determine the optimal growth of the microalgae. Kinetics of growth and &#946;-carotene production was determined in a period of 15 days. Results: After the analysis of the behavior graphic, an unstructured model was used for describing the cell growth (logistic model). It was observed that the model was well adjusted to experimental data for the two conditions of analysis. It was observed that alga produces carotenoids under conditions of stress, in which the cell division are retarded. In the case of cells grown in seawater (higher salt concentration), the cell growth was lower but the concentration of &#946;-carotene was higher. Conclusion: In general, these results suggest that D. salina presents higher potential for &#946;-carotene accumulation and that high salinity decreases cellular concentration (measured by the parameter Xm of the kinetic model proposed); however there is an increase in &#946;-carotene production.]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[Molecular Docking Studies of Benzamide Derivatives for <i>Pf</i>DHODH Inhibitor as Potent Antimalarial Agent]]> Background and Objective: The most severe form of Malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) is essential for the growth of this malaria parasite and has been validated as an antimalarial drug target for development of new antimalarial agents. The antimalarial identification using experimental techniques is expensive and requires extensive pains and labor. Several derivatives of triazolopyrimidine, benzamide, naphthamide and urea have been reported to inhibit PfDHODH. Yet, there is a good scope for design and optimization of these molecules owing to either for their toxic nature or poor activity. Therefore, molecular docking techniques can be used to provide new insights into the development of potent chemotherapeutic drug for combating malaria by targeting PfDHODH. Materials and Methods: Authors employed biological databases like PubChem, Drug Bank, Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the softwares, namely, Chimera, AutoDock and Python Molecular Viewer. The PDB contains structural information of the experimentally determined macromolecules and AutoDock is an automated docking tool, designed to predict how small molecules, such as substrates or drug candidates, bind to a receptor of known 3D structure. Chimera is a highly extensible program for interactive visualization and analysis of molecular structures while Python Molecular Viewer is a powerful molecular viewer. Results: On screening of benzamide derivatives, drug candidate CID 867491 was found to have least docking energy (-4.82 Kcal mol&#150;1), which inhibits PfDHODH and further the interaction between them was validated using python software by formation of hydrogen bond between the CID 867491 and PfDHODH. Conclusion: Results obtained from in silico study may provide a new insight into the development of potent chemotherapeutic drug for combating malaria by targeting PfDHODH, after further validating the identified target in wet labs.]]> 2019-01-01 <![CDATA[Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial]]> Background: Soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that potentially affect bone. Few long-term, large clinical trials of soy as a means of improving bone mineral density (BMD) in late postmenopausal women have been conducted.

    Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary soy protein and/or soy isoflavone consumption on skeletal health in late postmenopausal women.

    Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women aged &gt;60 y. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. After a 1-mo baseline period, subjects were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g) + isoflavone tablets (105 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein + placebo tablets, control protein + isoflavone tablets, and control protein + placebo tablets.

    Results: Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone pills did not differ between groups, and compliance with the study powder and pills was 80&ndash;90%. No significant differences in BMD were observed between groups from baseline to 1 y after the intervention or in BMD change between equol and non-equol producers. However, there were significant negative correlations between total dietary protein (per kg) and markers of bone turnover (P &lt; 0.05).

    Conclusions: Because soy protein and isoflavones (either alone or together) did not affect BMD, they should not be considered as effective interventions for preserving skeletal health in older women. The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00668447.

    ]]>
    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Leptadenia <i>hastata</i> Pers. (Decne) a Promising Source for Natural Compounds in Biomedical Applications]]> Leptadenia hastata (Pers) Decne. of Apocynaceae family is an African plant which is used as nutriment as well as for medical purposes due to its health promoting properties. Traditional healers use L. hastata to treat many diseases as hypertension, sexual impotence, trypanosomosis, acute rhinopharyngitis. In quantitative and qualitative terms, the leaves of L. hastata contain significant quantities of secondary metabolites, as triterpenes, total flavonoids, tanins, which can be important in biomedical research. In vivo studies showed the antifertility effect of L. hastata leaves extracts which can be useful for hormonal therapy replacement. Herein, the ecology, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, toxicity and pharmacology of L. hastata in consideration of its antifertility activity is reviewed. In view of its constituents such as steroidal glycosides, triterpenes and polyoxypregnane derivatives, further investigation on the effect of L. hastata on other hormonal endpoints like hormone dependent cancers appears promising.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Special Issue for the 6<SUP>th</SUP> International Conference on Applied Financial Economics, Samos, Greece, 2-4 July 2009]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[A Methodology for the Selection of Micro-Assembly Techniques]]> Problem statement: The study addressed the problem of selecting the appropriate micro-assembly techniques according to the micro-part features. Actually, in the micro-domain, the choice of the correct assembly technique is highly dependent on the micro-part characteristics such as shape, geometry and material. Approach: Since there was an incomplete and unstructured knowledge about the micro-assembly, the study proposed a Decision Support System (DSS) as solution for assisting the designer in the correct selection of the most suitable micro-assembly strategies. The first step was establishing a structured correlation between micro-assembly techniques and part features. In particular the phases grasping and releasing were adopted as test-study for their importance in the micro-assembly process. The second step was the set up of a multistage model for the selection of the grasping-releasing technique and the implementation of the model in an Expert System as a set of rules. Results: The DSS was tested on some common micro-parts producing a scored list of selected grasping-releasing methods. Conclusion: The DSS proved quite valuable in the selection and the scoring of the micro-assembly principles that suit specific applications.]]> 2010-04-01 <![CDATA[A Comparative Study on Safety and Security Management Systems in Industries]]> Problem statement: To understand and appreciate the safety and security management systems in industries with a view to find out critical areas requiring attention so as to enhance the effectiveness of safety management systems and security management systems in large, medium and small scale industries. Approach: The study was restricted to Large, Medium and Small scale industries located in Tamilnadu, Kerala, Pondycherry, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states of India. The data have been randomly collected from 45 samples each from Large, Medium and Small scale industries. This study has taken into the account of 6 major elements namely management commitment, documentation, facilities, promotion, procedure and training and each major elements having 6 sub elements thus consisting of 36 sub elements of safety management systems and 36 sub elements of security management systems. The sub-elements are prepared such as to reflect the availability of the safety and security management system in industries. Results: Major accident hazard industries require more attention towards safety and security management systems. The safety management system has gained more prevalence than security management system in large scale industries than the medium and small scale industries. The safety management system has considerable prevalence than security management system in medium scale industries than the small scale industries. The safety and security management system have more or less the same prevalence in the small scale industries. Conclusion: All the industries should devise systems for the adoption and implementation of safety and security management system. Security failures can lead to safety failures and hence they must be given equal importance. The major accident hazard industries should adopt all the safety and security management elements. All the elements of safety and security management systems should be given equal importance for effective and safe functioning of the industries. The security management system is an upcoming field which needs to be sincerely implemented in the industries in the present scenario of global terrorism. The safety and security management system should go together in a coherent manner to reduce the societal risk.]]> 2010-06-01 <![CDATA[Bioactive Compounds Extracted from the Pinto Bean Using Membrane Technology Inhibits Biofilm Formation of <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i>]]> Background and Objective: Pinto beans contain significant amounts of phytochemicals such as lectins and polyphenols. In this study, two bioactive-rich fractions from the pinto bean were extracted and isolated using acid treatment and membrane-based separation. Moreover, bioactive compounds from pinto bean were investigated to see whether it is effective in repressing biofilm formation of Listeria monocytogenes and ovarian cancer cell. Materials and Methods: The lectin- and polyphenol-rich fraction were extracted from the pinto bean using acid treatment and membrane technology, which are a simple, inexpensive and high yield promising method has not been reported previously. Two fractions were applied to inhibit the Listeria biofilm formation and ovarian cancer cell viability. Results: The lectin-rich fraction from ultrafiltration retentate (UFRT) was able to significantly reduce L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at 96.66% at 1,000 &mu;g mL&#150;1 followed by 81.16% at 100 &mu;g mL&#150;1 dosing concentrations. The polyphenol-rich fraction from nanofiltration retentate (NFRT) was not shown to significantly reduce the biofilm formation as well as the ovarian cancer cell viability which may be due to the low polyphenol activity and high oligosaccharides content. Conclusion: These results support that ultrafiltration is able to separate the lectin-rich fraction from pinto beans which can be used as a promising Listerial anti-biofilm agent to the food industry.]]> 2019-01-01 <![CDATA[Reflections on the Under-Researched Topic of Grief in Persons With Dementia: A Report From a Symposium on Grief and Dementia]]> This article describes a symposium about the clinical challenges of providing care to persons with dementia and their families. The plenary session addressed the bereavement process in the general older adult population, neurocognitive processes that alter the grief process in persons with dementia, and therapeutic approaches to support grieving persons in different stages of dementia. Participants from diverse health care disciplines met in small groups to identify (1) current responses to persons with dementia and their families who experience a loss; (2) barriers to providing effective responses; and (3) possible interventions to improve care. Two general types of interventions emerged: practical/agency support and spiritual/affective engagement.

    ]]>
    2010-08-01
    <![CDATA[Relation of Serum and Semen Malondialdehyde and Total Anti-Oxidants with Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men]]> Problem statement: Oxidative Stress (OS) has been recognized as one of the most important cause of male infertility. We studied the relation of serum and Semen Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) with sperm parameters in infertile men with sperm count within the normal range. Approach: The prospective case- control study performed on infertile men presenting to the infertility clinics of Mirzakochak khan hospital, Tehran university of Medical Sciences from June 2007 to June 2009. The samples were collected consecutively and the total of 40 infertile men was enrolled in the study. Also, 40 healthy men were matched as control group. MDA and TAC in serum and seminal plasma were measured and relation between them and semen analysis parameters were evaluated. The MDA was measured as nmol mL-1 and the TAC was expressed as g dL-1. Results: Analysis showed that the amount of semen MDA was statistically different in infertile and healthy control groups. We did not find any significant relation between smoking and sperm parameters in infertile men. The relation between semen MDA and abnormal sperm abnormal morphology (p = 0.003, r = -0.468) and semen TAC and weak sperm motility (p = 0.037, r = -0.359) was significant. Conclusion: Immediate attention should be directed at simplifying and validating the evaluation of reactive oxygen species and OS status so that it can be performed routinely.]]> 2010-03-01 <![CDATA[Immunity to Diphtheria in Haemodialysis Patients]]> Problem statement: The incidence of infectious diseases is increased in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure severely influences the immune functions of the host. Diphtheria is of great epidemiological concern. Although mainly observed during childhood, unvaccinated adults and relatively immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for acquiring diphtheria. Approach: To evaluate the anti-Diphtheria immunity level in southern Iranian patients with end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis and to find its association with sex, age, blood hemoglobin, serum albumin and duration of dialysis. This cross sectional study was carried out on a total of 52 patients, who were on hemodialysis and 52 age and sex matched healthy individuals with without any underlying renal disease as a control group. Subjects in the both groups receiving antidiphtheria toxoid vaccine or immunoglubins a year prior to the study were excluded. The serum antidiphtheria IgG antibody levels were measured by an ELISA method. Results: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients and the control groups were 34.6 and 63.30% respectively. Of the evaluating factors just hemodialysis duration found to affect on diphtheria immunity. Conclusion: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients group were significantly less than diphtheria protected individuals in the control group (p = 0.011). Hemodialysis duration has significant effect on anti-diphtheria immunity level.]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Multiple Symptomatic Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations in a Patient with HIV]]> SUMMARY: This brief case report describes an unusual presumed association of chronic HIV infection with multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations. An adult male patient presented with recurrent spontaneous brain intracranial hemorrhages and neurologic deficits requiring surgical evacuation. The diagnosis was delayed because of lack of a high index of suspicion of this unexpected and previously unrecognized association.

    ]]>
    2009-06-01
    <![CDATA[Anti-Arthritic Activity of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of <I>Urtica pilulifera</I> L. on Albino Rats]]> Problem statement: Urtica pilulifera (Urticeacae) has been used in folk medicine to alleviate inflammation and arthritis. In this study the anti-arthritic effect of methanolic leaf extract of the plant was evaluated and compared to untreated control as well as ibuprofen-treated groups in a rat model of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Approach: Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA subcutaneously into the right paw. The extract was given orally one day before CFA injection up to the completion of study (for 30 days). Two extract doses (1.33 and 2.0 g kg-1) and ibuprofen (53 mg kg-1) as a positive control were used. Paw volume was measured on alternate days up to 30 days. In addition, the effect of the extract on joint deformity, ankle swelling and inflammatory markers was evaluated. Results: The extract prevented arthritis-induced increase in paw volume and joint deformity dose-dependently as compared to control. Moreover, the extract showed significant increase in the packed cell volume [p&lt;0.05]. No alteration of kidney or liver function tests was detected in rats during repeated dose treatment. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional use of U. pilulifera for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and rheumatoid arthritis and suggests further evaluation for its role in increasing red blood cells.]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate is involved in the cAMP-dependent amylase release in parotid acinar cells]]> Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is known as a major cellular substrate for protein kinase C (PKC). MARCKS has been implicated in the regulation of brain development and postnatal survival, cellular migration and adhesion, as well as phagocytosis, endocytosis, and exocytosis. The involvement of MARCKS phosphorylation in secretory function has been reported in Ca2+-mediated exocytosis. In rat parotid acinar cells, the activation of &beta;-adrenergic receptors provokes exocytotic amylase release via accumulation of intracellular cAMP levels. Here, we studied the involvement of MARCKS phosphorylation in the cAMP-dependent amylase release in rat parotid acinar cells. MARCKS protein was detected in rat parotid acinar cells by Western blotting. The &beta;-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (IPR) induced MARCKS phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Translocation of a part of phosphorylated MARCKS from the membrane to the cytosol and enhancement of MARCKS phosphorylation at the apical membrane site induced by IPR were observed by immunohistochemistry. H89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, inhibited the IPR-induced MARCKS phosphorylation. The PKC inhibitor rottlerin inhibited the IPR-induced MARCKS phosphorylation and amylase release. IPR activated PKC, and the effects of IPR were inhibited by the PKA inhibitors. A MARCKS-related peptide partially inhibited the IPR-induced amylase release. These findings suggest that MARCKS phosphorylation via the activation of PKC, which is downstream of PKA activation, is involved in the cAMP-dependent amylase release in parotid acinar cells.

    ]]>
    2009-06-01
    <![CDATA[Competitive Effect of Prominent Weeds on Cowpea Cultivar in a Typical Ultisol]]> Background and Objective: Weeds reduced cowpea yield and quality by competing for light, water and nutrients. Hence identifying a cowpea cultivar that completes well against weeds will go a long way in increasing food sustain ability and security. Therefore, this study investigated the competition between cowpea (TVU-180) and selected weeds prominent in a typical ultisol. Materials and Methods: The study involved 10 treatments and a control. Each treatment included three seeds of the cowpea sowed alongside the selected weeds, Chrysopogon aciculatus (WA), Eleusine indica (WB), Cynodon dactylon (WC), Axonopus compressus (WD), Panicumn maximum (WE), Setaria bartata (WF), Sporobolus pyramidalis (WG), Commelina benghalensis (WH), Paspalum vaginatum (WI), a combination of the weeds (WJ) and the control arranged in a randomized block design (RBD) and replicated thrice. Results: The result of the study showed that there were significant weed competitive effect on the cowpea parameters examined. The plant height and number of leaflet of cowpea in WE, WA and WJ treatments were significantly increased over the control. No yield parameters were recorded in the associated weed treatments except in WA, WI and the control. However, weed competitiveness significantly reduced the bean yield of the cowpea in the WI and WA treatments. Weed competitiveness resulted in the lowest plant dry weight of the TVu-180 in WB when compared with control. There was variation in the light harvesting pigments with WH, WI and WB having a higher chlorophyll-a/b, carotenoid and lycopene content than the control. The WA and the control had the highest soil total N, P and K content. Conclusion: The cowpea TVu-180 variety was more promising for cultivation in a farm infested with Chrysopogon aciculatus and Paspalum vaginatum weeds without significant effects in the yield and quality of the plant.]]> 2019-01-01 <![CDATA[Social Norm Processing in Adult Social Phobia: Atypically Increased Ventromedial Frontal Cortex Responsiveness to Unintentional (Embarrassing) Transgressions]]> Objective:

    Little is known about the neural underpinnings of generalized social phobia, which is defined by a persistent heightened fear of social disapproval. Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), the authors examined whether the intent of an event, which mediates the neural response to social disapproval in healthy individuals, differentially affects response in generalized social phobia.

    Method:

    Sixteen patients with generalized social phobia and 16 healthy comparison subjects group-matched on age, gender, and IQ underwent fMRI scans while reading stories that involved neutral social events, unintentional social transgressions (e.g., choking on food at a party and coughing it up), or intentional social transgressions (e.g., disliking food at a party and spitting it out).

    Results:

    Significant group-by-transgression interactions were observed in ventral regions of the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy individuals tended to show increased blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses to intentional relative to unintentional transgressions. Patients with generalized social phobia, however, showed significantly increased responses to the unintentional transgressions. They also rated the unintentional transgressions as significantly more embarrassing than did the comparison subjects. Results also revealed significant group main effects in the amygdala and insula bilaterally, reflecting elevated generalized social phobia responses in these regions to all event types.

    Conclusions:

    These results further implicate the medial prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of generalized social phobia, specifically through its involvement in distorted self-referential processing. These results also further underscore the extended role of the amygdala and insula in the processing of social stimuli more generally in generalized social phobia.

    ]]>
    2010-12-01
    <![CDATA[Long-Term Quality of Life Assessment Among Patients Undergoing Uterine Fibroid Embolization]]> OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was assessment of the long-term outcome of fibroid-associated quality of life among patients treated with uterine fibroid embolization.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective follow-up cohort study included all patients described in a 2006 publication. Analysis was performed with a questionnaire consisting of 49 questions about six topics. Assessment was focused on comparing symptoms and quality of life in long-term follow-up.

    RESULTS. The analysis was based on questionnaires completed by 39 patients. The median follow-up period was 7 years (interquartile range, 1.5 years). Uterine fibroid embolization led to a reduction of bleeding symptoms in 89.7% of the patients, pain in 78.9%, bulk-related symptoms in 89.5%, fatigue in 76.9%, limitations of social life in 92.9%, and depression in 78.6%. The median impairment scores for bleeding and pain decreased significantly from 7 to 0 and from 5 to 0 (both p &lt; 0.001). The general quality-of-life index increased significantly from 4.5 to 9 (p &lt; 0.001). In the long term, there was no significant difference in parameters assessed compared with the midterm follow-up findings. Six patients (15.4%) underwent hysterectomy an average of 32.1 months after intervention. Thirty-two patients (82.1%) continued to be satisfied with the intervention, and 30 patients (76.9%) answered that they would recommend uterine fibroid embolization to other patients.

    CONCLUSION. Uterine fibroid embolization seems to lead to notable long-term relief of fibroid-associated symptoms. In comparison with the midterm results, long-term outcome shows a clear continuance of improvement in general quality of life.

    ]]>
    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Ultrasound-Guided Axillary Brachial Plexus Block with 20 Milliliters Local Anesthetic Mixture Versus General Anesthesia for Upper Limb Trauma Surgery: An Observer-Blinded, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial]]> OBJECTIVE: We performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing low-dose ultrasound-guided axillary block with general anesthesia evaluating anesthetic and perioperative analgesic outcomes.

    METHODS: Patients were randomized to either ultrasound-guided axillary block or general anesthesia. Ultrasound-guided axillary block was performed using a needle-out-of-plane approach. Up to 5 mL of local anesthetic injectate (equal parts 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 0.5% bupivacaine with 7.5 mg/mL clonidine) was injected after identifying the median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous nerves. A maximum of 20 mL local anesthetic injectate was used. General anesthesia was standardized to include induction with fentanyl and propofol, maintenance with sevoflurane in an oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture. Pain scores were measured in the recovery room and at 2, 6, 24, 48 h, and 7 days. Ability to bypass the recovery room and time to achieve hospital discharge criteria were also assessed.

    RESULTS: All ultrasound-guided axillary block patients achieved satisfactory anesthesia. The ultrasound-guided axillary block group had lower visual analog scale pain scores in the recovery room (0.3 [1.3] vs 55.8 [36.5], P &lt; 0.001), and visual rating scale pain scores at 2 h (0.3 [1.3] vs 45 [29.6], P &lt; 0.001), and at 6 h (1.1 [2.7] vs 4 [2.8], P &lt; 0.01). All ultrasound-guided axillary block patients bypassed the recovery room and attained earlier hospital discharge criteria (30 min vs 120 min 30/240 P &lt; 0.0001 median [range]).

    CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with 20 mL local anesthetic mixture provided satisfactory anesthesia and superior analgesia after upper limb trauma surgery when compared with general anesthesia.

    ]]>
    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Revascularization Versus Medical Therapy for Renal Artery Stenosis: Antihypertensive Drugs and Renal Outcome]]> Endovascular procedures may play a role in renal artery stenosis (RAS) treatment in attempt to preserve renal function and improve hypertension control. We determined renal outcome and the incidence of restenosis in patients with RAS treated with renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (RPTAs) and medical therapy versus patients with RAS treated only with medical therapy. We performed an observational study based on 93 patients with RAS. In all, 53 patients underwent RPTAs in association with medical therapy and 40 patients were only treated pharmacologically. In patients receiving RPTAs, a better renal outcome, a decrease of restenosis rate, and systolic&mdash;diastolic blood pressure were associated with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) + angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-is) therapy. In patients treated with medical therapy alone, renal improvement was related to ARBs in association with BBs (&beta;-blockers; P &lt; .0001). This study suggests that medical therapy may exert beneficial effects in patients with RAS.

    ]]>
    2011-01-01
    <![CDATA[Should you eat your offspring before someone else does? Effect of an egg predator on filial cannibalism in the sand goby]]> 2009-01-01 <![CDATA[Construction of Porcine Growth Hormone Eukaryotic Expression Vector and Its Transfection Mediated by Cationic Liposome in Mice]]> 2011-04-01 <![CDATA[Uptake of aluminium into Arabidopsis root cells measured by fluorescent lifetime imaging]]> Background and Aims

    Measuring the Al3+ uptake rate across the plasma membrane of intact root cells is crucial for understanding the mechanisms and time-course of Al toxicity in plants. However, a reliable method with the sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to estimate Al3+ uptake in intact root cells does not exist.

    Methods

    In the current study, fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM) analysis was used to quantify Al3+ uptake in the root-cell cytoplasm in vivo. This was performed via the estimation of the fluorescence lifetime of Al&ndash;lumogallion {5-chloro-3[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)azo]-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid} complexes and measurements of intracellular pH while exposing arabidopsis seedlings to acidic and Al3+ stresses.

    Key Results

    The lifetime of Al&ndash;lumogallion complexes fluorescence is pH-dependent. The primary sites for Al3+ entry are the meristem and distal elongation zones, while Al3+ uptake via the cortex and epidermis of the mature root zone is limited. The maximum rates of Al uptake into the cytoplasm (2&ndash;3 &micro;mol m&ndash;3 min&ndash;1 for the meristematic root zone and 3&ndash;7 &micro;mol m&ndash;3 min&ndash;1 for the mature zone) were observed after a 30-min exposure to 100 &micro;m AlCl3 (pH 4&middot;2). Intracellular Al concentration increased to 0&middot;4 &micro;m Al within the first 3 h of exposure to 100 &micro;m AlCl3.

    Conclusions

    FLIM analysis of the fluorescence of Al&ndash;lumogallion complexes can be used to reliably quantify Al uptake in the cytoplasm of intact root cells at the initial stages of Al3+ stress.

    ]]>
    2009-01-01
    <![CDATA[Cortisol measurement in patients receiving metyrapone therapy]]> Current guidance recommends titrating the dose of metyrapone against serum cortisol concentration, in patients under medical management of Cushing's syndrome. In the UK, this almost always involves measuring serum cortisol concentration by immunoassay, the performance of which is questionable in the presence of altered steroid metabolism. Sera from two patients receiving metyrapone were analysed using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) steroid assay to identify which steroids, if any, were elevated in these patients. In addition, control serum was spiked with a series of steroids to identify any potential positive interferences in a cortisol immunoassay. Serum 11-deoxycortisol concentration was elevated in both of the patients studied. One patient also had an elevated serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentration and the other an elevated androstenedione. In addition, the results of the interference studies indicated that the cortisol immunoassay was susceptible to interference from 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol. However, the magnitude of interference, in the serum cortisol immunoassay, due to these three steroids could not account for the discrepancy between the cortisol concentrations measured by immunoassay and those measured by MS. Both clinicians and laboratory staff should be aware of these interferences when monitoring patients undergoing treatment with metyrapone, and consequently serum should be measured in these patients by MS, not by immunoassay.

    ]]>
    2010-06-01
    <![CDATA[Phase II study of 3-AP Triapine in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma]]> Background: Treatment options for recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are limited with response rates to cytotoxic chemotherapy of ~30% and median survival of 6 months.

    Patients and methods: In a multicentre phase II study, 32 patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC received 3-AP Triapine (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone), an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, 96 mg/m2, daily for 4 days every 14 days (one cycle). Eligibility criteria required Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) of zero to two with a life expectancy of &gt;3 months; one prior chemotherapy regimen was allowed.

    Results: Thirty patients were assessable for response and toxicity. Median age was 57 years (range 36&ndash;79) and median ECOG PS was one (range 0&ndash;2). Thirteen patients had previously been treated with chemotherapy. A total of 130 cycles were administered with a median number of cycles of 3.5 (range 1&ndash;8). Mild anaemia (40%), nausea (22%) and fatigue (22%) were commonly reported with G3 and G4 neutropenia documented in 22% and 22%, respectively. Overall response rate was 5.9% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 28.7%). One patient achieved a partial response, eight had stable disease and 21 progressive disease. Median time to disease progression was 3.9 months.

    Conclusions: 3-AP Triapine as a single agent, at this dose and schedule, is well tolerated but has only minor activity in the treatment of advanced HNSCC.

    ]]>
    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[Mode of action of abatacept in rheumatoid arthritis patients having failed tumour necrosis factor blockade: a histological, gene expression and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging pilot study]]> Objectives:

    Abatacept is the only agent currently approved to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that targets the co-stimulatory signal required for full T-cell activation. No studies have been conducted on its effect on the synovium, the primary site of pathology. The aim of this study was to determine the synovial effect of abatacept in patients with RA and an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF) blocking therapy.

    Methods:

    This first mechanistic study incorporated both dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy-acquired synovial biopsies before and 16 weeks after therapy, providing tissue for immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR analyses.

    Results:

    Sixteen patients (13 women) were studied; all had previously failed TNF-blocking therapy. Fifteen patients completed the study. Synovial biopsies showed a small reduction in cellular content, which was significant only for B cells. The quantitative PCR showed a reduction in expression for most inflammatory genes (Wald statistic of p&lt;0.01 indicating a significant treatment effect), with particular reduction in IFN of &ndash;52% (95% CI &ndash;73 to &ndash;15, p&lt;0.05); this correlated well with MRI improvements. In addition, favourable changes in the osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B levels were noted. DCE&ndash;MRI showed a reduction of 15&ndash;40% in MRI parameters.

    Conclusion:

    These results indicate that abatacept reduces the inflammatory status of the synovium without disrupting cellular homeostasis. The reductions in gene expression influence bone positively and suggest a basis for the recently demonstrated radiological improvements that have been seen with abatacept treatment in patients with RA.

    ]]>
    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[In Vitro and In Vivo Validation of <I>ligA</I> and <I>tarI</I> as Essential Targets in <I>Staphylococcus aureus</I>]]> D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter to validate essential genes of Staphylococcus aureus in vivo. The system has been applied to prove the essentiality of ligA and to evaluate the function of tarI, which was found to be essential in vitro but not in vivo.]]> 2008-12-01 <![CDATA[Transposable Element Loads in a Bacterial Symbiont of Weevils Are Extremely Variable]]> 2008-12-01 <![CDATA[Paper-structured fiber composites impregnated with platinum nanoparticles synthesized on a carbon fiber matrix for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides]]> X) in the presence of methane (CH4), both of which are model exhaust gas components of combustion engines, paper-structured PtNPs catalyst demonstrated excellent NOX and CH4 removal efficiency and rapid thermal responsiveness by comparison with the PtNPs-supported carbon fibers, commercial Pt catalyst powders and a monolithic Pt-loaded honeycomb. These features of the new catalyst material are thought to arise from synergistic effects of the highly active PtNPs in association with the unique paper-like microstructure, in promoting effective transfer of heat and reactants to the active sites of the Pt nanocatalysts. The paper-structured PtNPs catalyst with paper-like practical utility is expected to be a promising catalytic material for efficient NOX gas purification.]]> 2009-03-4-01 <![CDATA[Gold and oil futures markets: Are markets efficient?]]> 2010-10-01 <![CDATA[Water geochemistry of the Xijiang basin rivers, South China: Chemical weathering and CO<sub>2</sub> consumption]]> 2 consumption and anthropogenic influences within the carbonate-dominated basin. The major ion compositions of the river waters are characterized by the dominance of Ca2+, Mg2+, View the MathML source View the MathML source View the MathML source is mainly derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals and acid precipitation caused by coal combustion. Chemical and Sr isotopic compositions of the river waters indicate that four reservoirs (carbonates, silicates, evaporites and anthropogenic inputs) contribute to the total dissolved loads. The chemical weathering rates of carbonates and silicates for the Xijiang basin are estimated to be approximately 78.5 and 7.45&nbsp;ton&nbsp;km&#x2212;2&nbsp;a&#x2212;1, respectively. The total chemical weathering rate of rocks for the Xijiang basin is approximately 86.1&nbsp;ton&nbsp;km&#x2212;2&nbsp;a&#x2212;1 or 42&nbsp;mm&nbsp;ka&#x2212;1, which is much higher than global mean values. The budgets of CO2 consumption by carbonate and silicate weathering are estimated to be 284&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;109 and 54.3&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;109&nbsp;mol&nbsp;a&#x2212;1, respectively. It would appear that H2SO4 is involved as a proton donor in weathering reactions in the Xijiang basin; calculated results show that the contribution of cations from rock weathering induced by H2SO4 accounts for approximately 11.2%. Results from this study show that the flux of CO2 released into the atmosphere is approximately 0.1&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;106&nbsp;mol&nbsp;C&nbsp;km&#x2212;2&nbsp;a&#x2212;1 or 0.41&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;1012&nbsp;g&nbsp;C&nbsp;a&#x2212;1 produced by H2SO4-induced carbonate weathering in the basin. When extrapolated to the entire surface area of carbonate in SW China, the flux of CO2 released to the atmosphere by H2SO4-induced carbonate weathering is about 1.41&nbsp;&#xd7;&nbsp;1012&nbsp;g&nbsp;C&nbsp;a&#x2212;1.]]> 2010-10-01 <![CDATA[Inverse problem for the reaction diffusion system by optimization method]]> 2011-01-01 <![CDATA[Multivariate Bell polynomials and their applications to powers and fractionary iterates of vector power series and to partial derivatives of composite vector functions]]> 2008-02-01 <![CDATA[EPR analysis of the effects of accelerated carbon ion and fast neutron irradiations on table sugar]]> 2009-09-01 <![CDATA[Speedy photoelectric exchange of CdSe quantum dots/mesoporous titania composite system ]]> 2009-06-01 <![CDATA[Effect of <em>Echinacea purpurea</em> on growth and survival of guppy (<em>Poecilia reticulata</em>) challenged with <em>Aeromonas bestiarum</em>]]> Echinacea purpurea supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, body composition and disease resistance were studied in the ornamental fish Poecilia reticulata. Five diets were used, each differing in Echinacea content (0 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; control, 5 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 1, 10 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 2, 20 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 3, 30 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 4 and 60 g kg&#8722;1 diet &minus; group 5), and the fish were fed twice daily at a rate of 30 g kg&#8722;1 body weight per day for 67 days. The gain in the body weight and the condition factor were significantly increased in groups 2-5, whereas specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio were significantly increased in the supplemented groups (P &lt; 0.05). Cumulative mortalities after challenge infection with the fish pathogen Aeromonas bestiarum were the lowest in the groups supplemented with Echinacea. Log-rank tests showed significant differences between the supplemented groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 and the control group (P = 0.0074, P = 0.0075, P = 0.00507, P = 0.00001 and P = 0.00001, respectively). The results of this study indicate that Echinacea improves body weight gain and resistance against challenge infection in fish.]]> 2011-06-01 <![CDATA[The saga of community learning: Mariculture and the Bolinao experience]]> 2014-02-01 <![CDATA[Specific Nail Alterations in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Successful Treatment With Topical Mechlorethamine]]> Background&nbsp; Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma can be associated with clinically significant nail alterations, the presentation of which can be protean and misleading. To date, only a few reports have demonstrated direct specific tumor infiltration of the nail bed, while little is known about the efficacy of topical treatments.

    Observations&nbsp; We describe the case of a 93-year-old man presenting with S&eacute;zary syndrome who developed clinically significant nail alterations. Light microscopy studies and T-cell receptor rearrangement analysis demonstrated the presence of a specific lymphocytic infiltrate within the nail bed. The patient was given repeated courses of topical mechlorethamine, leading to a sustained complete remission of both skin and nail alterations.

    Conclusions&nbsp; Specific nail involvement should be recognized and considered in all patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Topical mechlorethamine remains an attractive therapeutic option in cases of specific nail alterations, especially for situations in which systemic therapies are either not indicated or unlikely to be well tolerated.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome: a cause of extreme macrocephaly and neurodevelopmental delay]]> Background:

    Bannayan&ndash;Riley&ndash;Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by macrocephaly, developmental delay and subtle cutaneous features. BRRS results from mutations in the PTEN gene. In adults, PTEN mutations cause Cowden syndrome where, in addition to the macrocephaly, there is a higher risk of tumour development. Diagnosis of BRRS is often delayed as presentation can be variable, even within families.

    Aims:

    To identify characteristics of this condition which might facilitate early diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis not only avoids unnecessary investigations in the child but potentially identifies heterozygote parents who are at risk of tumour development.

    Methods and Results:

    Six children with a PTEN mutation were identified. All had extreme macrocephaly. Four parents and a male sibling were found to have a PTEN mutation on subsequent testing. Affected parents had extreme macrocephaly and a history of thyroid adenoma, or breast or skin lesions. All six children had presented to medical attention before the age of 2.5 years (3/6 were investigated as neonates), but the median age at diagnosis was 5 years. Four of the children had multiple investigations prior to identification of a PTEN mutation.

    Conclusion:

    BRRS should be considered in children with extreme macrocephaly as it is the most consistent clinical feature seen, particularly where there is a family history of macrocephaly.

    ]]>
    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[Laterobasal Amygdalar Enlargement in 6- to 7-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder]]> Context&nbsp; There is substantial imaging evidence for volumetric abnormalities of the amygdala in younger children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The amygdala can be divided into functionally distinct laterobasal, superficial, and centromedial subregions. To date, we are not aware of any in vivo reports specifically assessing subregional amygdalar abnormalities in individuals with ASD.

    Objectives&nbsp; To evaluate alterations in subregional amygdalar morphology in children with ASD compared with typically developing (TD) children and to examine the relationships with ASD symptom severity.

    Design&nbsp; A cross-sectional study encompassing a narrow age range of children with ASD and age-matched TD children that evaluated magnetic resonance imaging&ndash;defined subregional morphology of the amygdala using a novel subregional analytic method.

    Setting&nbsp; Participants were recruited and clinically evaluated through the University of Washington Autism Center and imaged at the Diagnostic Imaging Sciences Center at the University of Washington. Imaging data were analyzed through the Brain Imaging Laboratory at the Seoul National University.

    Participants&nbsp; Fifty-one children 6 to 7 years of age (ASD, n&nbsp;=&nbsp;31 and TD, n&nbsp;=&nbsp;20) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral measures.

    Main Outcome Measures&nbsp; Volume and subregional measures of the amygdala and measures of social and communication functioning.

    Results&nbsp; The ASD group exhibited larger right and left amygdalae, by 12.7% and 11.0%, respectively, relative to the TD group. Subregional analysis revealed that the ASD group had enlarged laterobasal amygdalar subregions, relative to the TD group, after adjusting for age, sex, and hemispheric cerebral volume (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.05, false discovery rate corrected and with clustered surface points >15). Exploratory analyses revealed that there were linear trends comparing a strictly defined subgroup of children with autistic disorder, who exhibited the greatest extent of laterobasal enlargement, followed by a subgroup of children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified and then the group of TD children (P for linear trend &lt;.001). There were linear trends between enlargement of laterobasal subregions and lower levels of social and communication functioning (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001, and P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.001 for 3 areas in the right laterobasal subregion; P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001 for 1 area in the left laterobasal subregion).

    Conclusion&nbsp; The current study demonstrates bilateral enlargement of laterobasal subregions of the amygdala in 6- to 7-year-old children with ASD and that subregional alterations are associated with deficits in social and communicative behavior.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Testing for the Presence of Positive-Outcome Bias in Peer Review: A Randomized Controlled Trial]]> Background&nbsp; If positive-outcome bias exists, it threatens the integrity of evidence-based medicine.

    Methods&nbsp; We sought to determine whether positive-outcome bias is present during peer review by testing whether peer reviewers would (1) recommend publication of a "positive" version of a fabricated manuscript over an otherwise identical "no-difference" version, (2) identify more purposefully placed errors in the no-difference version, and (3) rate the "Methods" section in the positive version more highly than the identical "Methods" section in the no-difference version. Two versions of a well-designed randomized controlled trial that differed only in the direction of the finding of the principal study end point were submitted for peer review to 2 journals in 2008-2009. Of 238 reviewers for The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research randomly allocated to review either a positive or a no-difference version of the manuscript, 210 returned reviews.

    Results&nbsp; Reviewers were more likely to recommend the positive version of the test manuscript for publication than the no-difference version (97.3% vs 80.0%, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001). Reviewers detected more errors in the no-difference version than in the positive version (0.85 vs 0.41, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001). Reviewers awarded higher methods scores to the positive manuscript than to the no-difference manuscript (8.24 vs 7.53, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.005), although the "Methods" sections in the 2 versions were identical.

    Conclusions&nbsp; Positive-outcome bias was present during peer review. A fabricated manuscript with a positive outcome was more likely to be recommended for publication than was an otherwise identical no-difference manuscript.

    ]]>
    2010-12-01
    <![CDATA[Special Considerations for Pars Plana Tube-Shunt Placement in Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis]]> The Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis has been successfully used in eyes with a poor prognosis for a conventional penetrating keratoplasty. The Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis Study Group reported significant postoperative vision improvement with a high rate of graft retention. However, glaucoma has significantly limited visual potential in patients with otherwise successful transplants. Given a crowded anterior chamber, scarring, and/or inability to visualize the anterior segment after the keratoprosthesis implantation, vitrectomy and pars plana tube placement is frequently necessary for intraocular pressure control. In addition, the need for optimal contact lens fitting after surgery necessitates a modified surgical technique for the combined procedure to avoid complications and to achieve optimal visual rehabilitation. We present our technique in a case series of combined vitrectomy and pars plana glaucoma shunt placement for the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Effect of Apolactoferrin on Experimental Pneumococcal Otitis Media]]> Objective&nbsp; To find the effect of apolactoferrin administration on the middle and inner ears after experimentally induced pneumococcal otitis media.

    Design&nbsp; Histopathologic and morphometric analysis of the middle and inner ears.

    Setting&nbsp; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

    Subjects&nbsp; Ten chinchillas.

    Interventions&nbsp; The middle ear cavities of chinchillas were inoculated bilaterally with type 2 wild-type Streptococcus pneumoniae. Twenty-four hours later, the ears of 5 of the animals were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the other 5 with human apolactoferrin. The animals were killed 24 hours after the last injection. Bacterial counts were made of the middle ear effusions, and the cochleae were processed for histologic analysis. The thickness of the round window membranes and bacterial and inflammatory cell infiltration of the round window membranes, and scala tympani and damage of the hair cells and stria vascularis were compared for these 2 groups of animals.

    Main Outcome Measures&nbsp; Comparison of inflammatory and bacterial cells in the middle and inner ears, and damage to inner ear structures.

    Results&nbsp; Bacterial plate counts of middle ear effusions (P&nbsp;&nbsp;=&nbsp;.005) and the number of inflammatory cells in the round window membrane (P&nbsp;&nbsp;=&nbsp;.047) were significantly lower in the apolactoferrin group compared with the group treated with PBS.

    Conclusion&nbsp; Further investigation of apolactoferrin as a nonantibiotic approach for the treatment of otitis media and its complications is needed to confirm its safety and efficacy.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Complicated Grief and Associated Risk Factors Among Parents Following a Child's Death in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit]]> Objective&nbsp; To investigate the extent of complicated grief symptoms and associated risk factors among parents whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Design&nbsp; Cross-sectional survey conducted by mail and telephone.

    Setting&nbsp; Seven children's hospitals affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2008.

    Participants&nbsp; Two hundred sixty-one parents from 872 families whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit 6 months earlier.

    Main Exposure&nbsp; Assessment of potential risk factors, including demographic and clinical variables, and parent psychosocial characteristics, such as attachment style, caregiving style, grief avoidance, and social support.

    Main Outcome Measure&nbsp; Parent report of complicated grief symptoms using the Inventory of Complicated Grief. Total scale range is from 0 to 76; scores of 30 or higher suggest complicated grief.

    Results&nbsp; Mean (SD) Inventory of Complicated Grief scores among parents were 33.7 (14.1). Fifty-nine percent of parents (95% confidence interval, 53%-65%) had scores of 30 or higher. Variables independently associated with higher symptom scores in multivariable analysis included being the biological mother or female guardian, trauma as the cause of death, greater attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance, and greater grief avoidance.

    Conclusions&nbsp; Parents who responded to our survey experienced a high level of complicated grief symptoms 6 months after their child's death in the pediatric intensive care unit. However, our estimate of the extent of complicated grief symptoms may be biased because of a high number of nonresponders. Better understanding of complicated grief and its risk factors among parents will allow those most vulnerable to receive professional bereavement support.

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Women in Surgery: A Survey in Switzerland]]> An increasing proportion of women work in medicine; however, only few choose surgical specialties. The objective of this study was to analyze the current situation of female surgeons and surgical residents in Switzerland concerning their personal and professional fulfillment. Of 318 female surgeons and surgical residents included in our study, 189 (59.4%) returned the anonymous questionnaire. Mentor-mentee relationships were mentioned by 110 (58.2%) of the 189 respondents. On the basis of a 7-point Likert scale, these women responded that they were moderately satisfied with their professional (mean score [SD], 2.7&nbsp;[1.3]) and personal (mean score [SD], 3.0&nbsp;[1.7]) lives. Of the 189 respondents, 113 (59.8%) mentioned that they felt underappreciated. The most important ways suggested for increasing the attractiveness of a surgical career for women were a reduction in workload (49 respondents [25.9%]), more flexible working hours (38 respondents [20.1%]), and better structured residency programs (23 respondents [12.2%]).

    ]]>
    2010-11-01
    <![CDATA[Serum Resistin Concentrations and Risk of New Onset Heart Failure in Older Persons: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study]]> Objective&mdash; Resistin is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance and exerts direct effects on myocardial cells including hypertrophy and altered contraction. We investigated the association of serum resistin concentrations with risk for incident heart failure (HF) in humans.

    Methods and Results&mdash; We studied 2902 older persons without prevalent HF (age, 73.6&plusmn;2.9 years; 48.1% men; 58.8% white) enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Correlation between baseline serum resistin concentrations (20.3&plusmn;10.0 ng/mL) and clinical variables, biochemistry panel, markers of inflammation and insulin resistance, adipocytokines, and measures of adiposity was weak (all rho &lt;0.25). During a median follow-up of 9.4 years, 341 participants (11.8%) developed HF. Resistin was strongly associated with risk for incident HF in Cox proportional hazards models controlling for clinical variables, biomarkers, and measures of adiposity (HR, 1.15 per 10.0 ng/mL in adjusted model; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.27; P=0.003). Results were comparable across sex, race, diabetes mellitus, and prevalent and incident coronary heart disease subgroups. In participants with available left ventricular ejection fraction at HF diagnosis (265 of 341; 77.7%), association of resistin with HF risk was comparable for cases with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction.

    Conclusions&mdash; Serum resistin concentrations are independently associated with risk for incident HF in older persons.

    ]]>
    2009-07-01
    <![CDATA[Procedural justice in promotion decisions of managerial staff in Malaysia]]> 2012-01-01 <![CDATA[Antibacterial Activities of Mango Leaf (<i>Mangifera indica</i>) Extracts on Catfish <i>Clarias gariepinus</i> (Burchell, 1822) Infected with <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>]]> Background and Objective: The side effects of antibiotics on fish and the consequences on the environment can be mitigated using plant extracts. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of mango leaf extracts on pathogens isolated from African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus. Materials and Methods: Sub adult catfish collected from private fish farms in Odogbolu, Ogun state, were used for microbiological examination, biochemical tests, DNA extraction and molecular characterization of bacteria. The fish were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa with visible lesions on flesh and subsequent treatment with Mangifera indica leaf extracts. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals were later determined. Haematology and histological studies carried out and Complete Randomized Design experiment was used for the study. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature were monitored weekly on the experimental farm. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Results: Haematological profile of WBC (White Blood Cells), HGB (Haemoglobin), RBC (Red Blood Cells) and HCT (Haematocrit) after treatment with extracts improved significantly after post infection at 10 mg mL&#150;1 with liver normalizes after 7 days of treatment with mango leaf extracts at 10.0 mg mL&#150;1 concentration. There was also, atrophy or proliferation of the epithelial cells of secondary lamellae with fusion 7 days after treatment at 10 mg mL&#150;1. Phytochemicals present were alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin, cardiac glycoside, phenol, anthraquinone, terpenoid, phylobatanin and steroid. Quantitatively alkaloids were 10.49&plusmn;1.00a, flavonoids 2.93&plusmn;1.00ab, saponin 3.52&plusmn;1.00ab, tannin 3.52&plusmn;1.00bcd and phenol 4.10&plusmn;1.00abc. Conclusion: This study revealed that mango leaves extracts at 10 mg mL&#150;1 contained sufficient phytochemicals that exerted antibacterial properties on the identified fish pathogens and reduce reliance on synthetic antibiotics. It is therefore suffice to say that plant extracts are a good source of novel products and can serve as alternative to antibiotics.]]> 2019-01-01 <![CDATA[Effects of Coffee Ground Silage Feeding in Reducing Somatic Cell Count in Bovine Subclinical Mastitis Milk]]> Background and Objective: Bovine subclinical mastitis increases somatic cell count (SCC) without showing clinical symptoms, thus resulting in substantial economic losses to dairy farms. Numerous attempts to reduce SCC without using antibiotics have been reported but they have yet to be applied widely. This study investigated whether SCC can be reduced by feeding coffee ground silage containing large amounts of polyphenol, which is an inexpensive antioxidant to cows with subclinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: In cows with subclinical mastitis, the coffee ground silage feeding group was fed by adding 1.5 kg day&#150;1 to normal feed and feed in the control group was not supplemented. Blood and milk were collected every week, the SCC in the quarter milk was measured and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in the blood and milk and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in milk were measured. In order to investigate the immune kinetics, leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed for 7 days after feeding. Results: Although the SCC did not show a significant decrease in the non-feeding group (n = 9), in the coffee ground silage feeding group (n = 11), it was decreased significantly (p&lt;0.01) at the 5th week. Furthermore, ORAC values were significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in the coffee ground silage group (n = 5) than in the non-feeding group (n = 6), the TBARS value was significantly lower (p&lt;0.01). In addition, bulk milk SCC after feeding was also observed in 150 milking cattle in the summer season under heat stress. Furthermore, in the subpopulation of leukocytes after 7 days of feeding, there was a significant increase in CD4+cells and CD14+MHC class II+cells on day 1 after feeding. Conclusion: These results suggest that feeding of coffee ground silage to cows with subclinical mastitis increased the antioxidant activity and immune activity, leading to a decrease SCC in milk.]]> 2018-05-01 <![CDATA[Effect of Using Fungal Treated Rice Straw in Sheep Diet on Nutrients Digestibility and Microbial Protein Synthesis]]> Background and Objective: Biological methods by using white-rot fungi is one of the viable alternatives to improve the nutritional value of rice straw. Moreover, biological method is environmental friendly and potentially economic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of utilisation of fungal treated rice straw in the diet of sheep on feed intake and nutrient digestibility when compared to untreated or urea treated rice straw. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 male Phan Rang sheep with body weight (20.58&plusmn;1.16 kg) were randomly assigned to either a Rice Straw (RS) or a urea treated rice straw (UTR) or fugal treated rice straw (FTR) diet over an experimental period of 20 days in a completely randomized design. The RS diet was a mixture of rice straw, guinea grass and concentrates. In the UTR and the FTR diets, rice straw was replaced by urea treated rice straw and fungal treated rice straw, respectively. During 14 days of adaptation, all sheep were kept in individual pens and received their assigned diets ad libitum. During the following 6 days, the sheep were offered at 95% of ad libitum intake and moved to metabolism crates for total urine and fecal collection to evaluate feed intake, nutrients digestibility and N balance. All data were tested by ANOVA using the general model procedure of SAS. Results: The nutrient intake did not differ among three diets. However, apparent nutrient digestibility were highest (p&lt;0.05) in sheep fed the FTR diet. The nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis were also greatest (4.32 and 6.04 g/day, respectively, p&lt;0.05) for sheep fed the FTR diet. Conclusion: These results suggest that using fungal treated rice straw in the diet of sheep showed the best improvement of nutrient digestibility, N retention and microbial protein synthesis.]]> 2019-01-01 <![CDATA[Effects of whole Lemon grass (<i>Cymbopogon citratus</i>) extract on bacteria (<i>Aeromonas veronii</i>) infected Sub-adult <i>Clarias gariepinus</i>]]> Background and Objective: The aftermath of heavy usage of antibiotics could be harmful on the fish and aquatic environment by creating drug resistant bacteria and transferable resistance genes in fish pathogens. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of whole lemon grass plant extracts on pathogens isolated from African mud catfish and examined the histological and haematological indices of sub-adult African mud catfish collected from private fish farms in Odogbolu, Ogun state, Nigeria. Microbial examinations, biochemical tests, DNA extraction and molecular characterization of bacteria were conducted. Materials and Methods: About 150 experimental farm catfish were infected with bacteria (Aeromonas veronii) with visible lesions on flesh and was subsequent treatment with lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) leaf extracts at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mg g&#150;1 and aquaceryl antibiotic 10 mg g&#150;1. Cymbopogon citratus was extracted using ethanol, while qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening were carried out after being concentrated. Fish samples were analyzed for haematological and histological profiles. Complete randomised design experiment was used for this study. Dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature were monitored weekly on the experimental farm. Results: Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Phytochemicals revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannin, saponin, flavonoids and phenol with quantitative values of alkaloid at 6.78&plusmn;1.00 mg g&#150;1, flavonoids 3.22&plusmn;1.00 mg g&#150;1, saponin, tannin and phenol had 0.42&plusmn;1.00, 1.68&plusmn;1.00, 4.29&plusmn;1.00 mg g&#150;1, respectively. The haematological profile of fish post inoculation showed that White Blood Cells (WBC) increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) compared with control. After treatment with plant extracts, the blood parameters including WBC, Haemoglobin (HGB), Red Blood Cells (RBC), Haematocrit (HCT), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) and Mean plateletcrit Volume (MPV) increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) at 2.5 mg g&#150;1. The liver and the gills were normal after treatment with extract. Conclusion: This study showed that whole lemon grass plant improved the haematological and histological profile of inoculated fish.]]> 2019-02-01 <![CDATA[Protective Effect of <I>Cucumis sativus</I> on Carbon Tetrachloride CCl<SUB>4</SUB>-induced Liver Damage in Rats]]> Background and Objective: Research on liver diseases have been on increase and have become a global concern. Cucumis sativus has been reported to have anti-oxidant activity, high flavonoid content, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity and may likely of help in the management of liver disease. The hepatoprotective effect of the homogenate of Cucumis sativus fruit were therefore studied and histopathological assessment of the liver damage was done. Materials and Methods: The fresh fruit of Cucumis sativus was homogenized and used for all experimental analysis. The effects of the fruit homogenate on liver function biomarkers and lipid profile in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were evaluated using standard biochemical methods. Data were analyzed using SPSS and two-way ANOVA; the acceptance level of significance was p&lt;0.05. Results: Treatment of rats with the homogenate of Cucumis sativus fruits significantly (p&lt;0.05) decreased CCl4-induced elevated levels of the liver enzymes and total bilirubin in the serum when compared to positive control. The homogenate also attenuated the CCl4-induced elevation of LDL, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentration and ameliorated the induced depletion of HDL. Pre-treatment with Cucumis sativus fruit homogenate significantly improved the structure of hepatic cells. The homogenate showed a sign of liver cell protection comparable to that of the standard drug-silymarin. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the homogenate was effective in the prevention of CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and may improve the liver integrity of consumers.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[Antifungal Potential of Some Plant Extracts Against <i>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides </i>Causal Organism of Papaya Anthracnose Disease]]> Background and Objective: The chemical control of papaya anthracnose used by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a crucial problem. Plant extracts are emerging as safer alternatives to conventional fungicides for the control of plant diseases. The present investigation was conducted with the objectives of evaluating six different plant extracts for their antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides. Materials and Methods: Plant species, Cassia fistula, Lantana camara, Moringa oleifera, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Ricinus communis and Solanum torvum were screened for inhibition of mycelium growth and conidia formation. The C. gloeosporioides spore suspension of 1&times;105 spores mL&#150;1 was sprayed evenly on treated papaya fruits with each plant extract and control fruits were sprayed with sterile distilled water. Diseases severity, soluble solids content, pH and fruit mass loss were evaluated. Results: Methanol extract of L. camara of 100 &mu;L from the concentration of 50 mg mL&#150;1 resulted in the highest inhibition of mycelia growth and conidia formation (90.71:70.85%) followed by O. tenuiflorum (45.71%) and M. oleifera (44.76%) against C. gloeosporioides. Out of tested extracts, L. camara gave the lowest disease severity index at 20% concentration and maintained optimum quality of papaya fruit during 7 days experimental period. Conclusion: The study revealed that L. camara exhibit strong antifungal activities against C. gloeosporioides and has potential for being formulated into botanical fungicides against anthracnose of papaya.]]> 2019-03-01 <![CDATA[<I>In silico</I> Molecular Docking and ADME/Tox Study on Benzoxazole Derivatives Against Inosine 5&#146;-Monophosphate Dehydrogenase]]> Background and Objective: Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is a microscopic parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis in human. Accessible medications to treat cryptosporidiosis are ineffective and there is yet no immunization against C. parvum. So there is an urgent need to develop a suitable synthetic drug from available databases for suitable targets using computer aided drug designing and quantitative structure activity relationship. Present study was conducted to screen the best compound suitable for binding 5-Monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) target having optimum binding energy. Materials and Methods: In this regards, 38 benzoxazole derivatives were screened from PubChem compound database and docked with inosine 5-Monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) of Cryptosporidium parvum using the program AutoDock 4.2 from docked compound. Results: Four best predicted compounds CID 649646, CID 1318080, CID782217, CID1385213 with optimal binding energies -9.48, -9.39, -9.07 and -9.13 kcal moL&#150;1 were found with IMPDH, respectively. The biological activity of docked compounds in terms of pIC50 was predicted based on 2D QSAR model built in our previously published work. The docked complex structures were optimized by molecular dynamics simulation with the CHARMM-22 force field using NAMD and evaluated the stability of complex structures by calculating RMSD. In silico ADME/Tox properties of best predicted derivatives of IMPDH were evaluated. Conclusion: The screened compounds showed satisfactory results for oral administration. Compounds have HIA in the range of well absorbed compounds and value in standard range. Skin permeability of derivatives showed negative values. Derivatives lightly bind to plasma proteins. The Ames test showed compounds were mutagenic and carcinogenicity showed negative value in mouse and positive value in rat.]]> 2018-01-01 <![CDATA[A Combined Approach to the Treatment of Nevus Comedonicus using Topical Adapalene and Oral Doxycycline]]> Background and Objective: Nevus Comedonicus (NC) is a rare benign hamartoma presenting with grouped, dark, firm, comedo-like papules sometimes forming pustules and cysts, commonly seen on face and neck areas. The authors report a case of a 16-year-old female with lesions consistent with NC on biopsy. There was no extra cutaneous involvement since infancy when the lesions first appeared. Materials and methods: The patient was treated with adapalene 0.3% gel, twice a day and oral doxycycline 100 mg/cap, twice a day for one month. Results: There was a decrease in the size of cysts and improvement in the depth of the pits; however, the formation of comedo-like papules remained unchanged. Conclusion: To date, there have been no published studies of the use of topical adapalene in NC. In addition, the combined treatment of topical adapalene and oral doxycycline has not been previously reported in the literature.]]> 2019-01-01 <![CDATA[Reproductive Biology of Female Bilih Fish (<I>Mystacoleucus padangensis </I>Bleeker 1852) in Naborsahan River Toba Lake, North Sumatera, Indonesia]]> Background and Objective: The study of reproductive biology of bilih fish (Mystacoleucus padangensis) has been conducted for one year in Naborsahan River, Toba Lake, North Sumatra. The aim of this study was to examine the reproduction characteristics of female bilih fish. Methodology: Sampling of fish was carried out at six stations determined based on the river characteristics and bilih fish habitat using bag net and cast net. Gonadosomatic index value varied from 0.12-31.70% with an average ranging between 5.70-9.16%. Results: Observation of 432 mature ovarians showed that the fecundity of bilih fish ranging between 8683-17824 eggs. Directly-measured oocyte diameter ranged from 70.6-877.8 &mu;m, while histological-measured oocyte diameter ranged from 60.2-747.3 &mu;m. Conclusion: Based on morphological and histological examinations, the gonad developmental stages of female bilih fish (ovarians) can be divided into five stages: Stage 1 (Immature), Stage II (Pre mature), Stage III (Maturing and Mature), Stage IV (Pre spent) and Stage V (Spent). Bilih fish spawning patterns are partial and the spawning peak occurred in August-September and February-March.]]> 2016-01-3-01 You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near '' at line 1