The post Compound Wall Estimate Guide with Bar Bending Schedule appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>If you are planning a building project, it’s important to get an accurate estimate of how much the compound wall will cost. Using bar bending schedule to plan is a useful tool that not only helps with budgeting, but also enables you to have better control over your project. Its also help to prepare estimating and costing of earthwork excavation and block masonry construction cost of wall.
A compound wall for a building is a wall that surrounds the outside of a building or collection of buildings, like an apartment building or a campus of office buildings. It acts as a boundary between private property from public areas.
Its major function is to define the boundaries of the property and to give residents privacy and security. Depending on the level of security necessary, compound walls can be constructed from a variety of materials, including concrete, brick, stone, or wood. They can also vary in height and thickness.
Let’s now calculate the price of a compound wall for a 40′ × 50′ site with a 10 ft gate as shown below:
We have provided the RCC columns at 10 ft. c/c.
The No. of columns required
= site perimeter ÷ c /c column’s distance
= [ ( 50 ft.× 2 nos.) + ( 40 ft. × 2 nos.)] ÷ 10 ft.
= 180 ft ÷ 10 ft.
= 18 nos. ( as shown below.)
The number of excavation pit required for the rcc column footing = 18 nos.
Let us provide 1.5 ft × 1.5 ft size footings, and the dimension of the pit to accommodate these footings shall be 2ft. × 2ft.× 2.5 ft. as shown in the drawing below.
The total volume of excavation for footing = Volume of Single Footing x Nos of Footings
= (2′ × 2′ × 2.5′) × 18 nos.
= 180 cft.
Let us excavate 4″ (inch) extra on both side of the plinth beam for formwork removal as shown in the drawing.
The volume of excavation for the plinth beam (RCC)
= [ perimeter of site – ( No. of footings × footing excavation width.)] × plinth excavation width × plinth excavation depth
= [180 ft. – (18 nos. × 2 ft.)] × 1.416 ft. × 0.9166 ft.
= 144 ft. × 1.416 ft. × 0.9166 ft.
= 186.90 cft.
The total excavation of earthwork for compound wall
= footing excavation + plinth excavation
= 180 cu ft + 186.90 cu ft.
= 366.90 cft.
Let us make a boulder soling of 9″ (inch) thick ( 0.75 ft.) for the footing as shown below.
The volume of soling for the footing = Volume of Soling per footing x No. of footings
= ( 2 x 2 x 0.75) × 18 Nos
= 3 cft × 18 Nos.
= 54 cft.
Let us prepare 4 inch thick ( 0.33 ft.) PCC bed for the footing & plinth beam.
volume of PCC for the footings:
The volume of PCC for the footings = Volume of PCC per footing x Nos of Footings
Vp1 = ( 2 ft x 2 ft x 0.33 ft) × 18 cft.
= 1.32 cft × 18 Nos.
= 23.76 cft.
As we know that the volume of excavation for the plinth beam is 186.90 cu ft.
From the above drawing, depth of excavation = 0.9166 ft.
PCC thickness = 4″ ( 0.33ft.).
Volume of PCC for the plinth beam
Volume of PCC for the plinth beam = X-Sec Area of PCC under Beam x [Beam Parameter – (Width of footing x Nos of Footings)]
Vp2 = (1.416 x 0.33) x [ 180 ft – ( 1.5 ft x 18 Nos)]
= 0.47 sft × 153 ft
= 71.91 cft.
= Vp1 + Vp2
= 23.76 cft.+ 71.91 cft.
= 95.67 cu ft.
Let us make PCC (Plain Cement Conc.) in the 1:2:4 mix.
Quantity of cement bags required for PCC (Plain Cement Conc.)
= 17.942 bags × ( 95.67 cft ÷ 100 cu ft.)
= 17.16 bags.
The volume of sand required for PCC
= 44 cu ft. × ( 95.67 cft ÷ 100 cft.)
= 42.09 cft.
The volume of aggregates required for PCC
= 88 cu ft. × ( 95.67 cft ÷ 100 cft.)
= 84.19 cft.
Let us make a RCC footing of size 1.5 ft × 1.5 ft. having 10″ ( 0.833 ft. ) thickness as shown in the drawing
Given data :
Footing length = 1.5 ft.
Width = 1.5 ft.
Thickness = 0.833 ft.
Rebar diameter = 10 mm.(0.0328 ft.),
Spacing = 5″ (0.416 ft. ) c/c
Cover = 2″ (0.166 ft ) on all the sides.
As we know that, the number of footings = 14nos.
= [total nos. × length × breadth × thickness]
= [18 nos. × 1.5 ft. × 1.5 ft. × 0.833 ft.]
= 33.74 cu ft. i.e. 0.95 cum.
No. of bars along the x-axis
= [ {( footing length ) – ( 2 × cover )} ÷ spacing ] + 1
= [ {( 1.5 ft.) – ( 2 ×0.166 ft.)} ÷ 0.416 ft.] +1
= [ { 1.168 ft. } ÷ 0.416 ft. ] +1
= 2.807 +1
= 4 nos.
( By rounding off )
No. of bars along the y-axis
= [ {( footing width ) – ( 2 × cover )} ÷ spacing ] + 1
= [ {( 1.5 ft.) – ( 2 ×0.166 ft.)} ÷ 0.416 ft.] +1
= [ { 1.168 ft. } ÷ 0.416 ft. ] +1
= 2.807 +1
= 4 nos.
( By rounding off )
Cutting length of the bar along the x-axis
= [ {bar length in x-axis } + { 2 nos. × ( L – bend length)}] – 2nos. × ( 2 times bar dia. for 90° bend.)
( we have deducted 2 times bar dia i.e. 2d for the 90° bend of the bar. )
= [ { footing length – 2 × cover } + 2nos.×{ footing height – 2 × cover}] – 2× ( 2 × bar dia. )
= [ { 1.5 ft. – 2 × 0.166 ft. } + 2 × { 0.833 ft. – 2 × 0.166 ft. } ] – 2 × ( 2 × 0.0328 ft.)
= [ 1.168 ft. + 1.002 ft. ] – 0.131ft.
= 2.17 ft. – 0.131 ft.
= 2.039 ft. i.e. 0.6214 m.
Cutting length of the bar along the y -axis
= [ {bar length in y-axis } + { 2 nos. × ( L- bend length)}] – 2nos. × ( 2 times bar dia. for 90° bend.)
= [ { footing width – 2 × cover } + 2nos. × { footing height – 2 × cover}] – 2× ( 2 × bar dia. )
= [ { 1.5 ft. – 2 × 0.166 ft. } + 2 × { 0.833 ft. – 2 × 0.166 ft. } ] – 2 × ( 2 × 0.0328 ft.)
= [ 1.168 ft. + 1.002 ft. ] – 0.131ft.
= 2.17 ft. – 0.131 ft.
= 2.039 ft. i.e. 0.6214 m.
Note: The cutting length & number of bars in both ( x-axis & y-axis ) directions will be the same, in the case of square footing having a similar bar diameter.
Now, we will prepare BBS (Bar Bending Schedule) of the footing, from calculated data.
sl bar dia. no. length total weight total
no. type mm. in m. length in kg/m weight
1. x- axis 10 4 0.6214 2.4856 0.62 1.54
2. y – axis 10 4 0.6214 2.4856 0.62 1.54
Total weight of the bars = 3.08 kgs
Add 2 % wastage = 0.0616 kgs
A grand total of rebar for a footing = 3.1416 kgs.
Note : Weight of 10mm dia bar /meter is 0.62 kg.
The total weight of the 10mm dia bar for all the footings
= [18 nos. × 3.1416 kgs.]
= 56.55 kgs.
Let us make a 9″×12″ RCC plinth beam as shown in the drawing.
Given data :
Plinth beam size = 9″× 12″
Main bar dia = 12 mm., no. of bars = 4 nos.
Stirrups 8mm @ spacing 150mm c/c , clear cover = 25 mm from all the sides.
= length × breadth × depth
= [ (perimeter of site – no.of columns × column width) × breadth × depth]
= [(180 ft – 18 nos. × 0.75 ft.) × 0.75 ft × 1 ft.]
= [166.5 ft. × 0.75 ft. × 1ft.]
= 124.875 cu ft. i.e. 3.53 cum.
Note: We have deducted the column width from the plinth beam length, as we have included them in the column volume.
The perimeter of site = 180 ft. = 54864 mm.
We will provide Ld at the corner rcc columns of the compound wall, passing the plinth bar through the intermediate columns.
The cutting length of the main bar
= [ (perimeter of site) + (8 nos × Ld ) + (4 nos. × lap length) – (8nos × column width) ]
Note: we assume that one overlapping for each bar & we will provide a lap length of 50d.
Let us provide development length Ld = 40d for the main bar.
= [ (54864 mm.) + (8 nos. × 40 × 12mm) + (4 nos × 50 × 12 mm) – (8 nos.× 230mm)]
= [54864 mm + 3840mm + 2400mm – 1840mm ]
= 59264 mm. i.e. 59.264 m.
Cutting length of the stirrup
= 2 nos. × (a +b ) + hook length – 90° bend – 135° bend
Where a = beam width – 2 × cover, & b = beam depth – 2 × cover
= 2 nos. × [ ( 230 mm – 2 × 25mm.) + ( 300 mm – 2 × 25mm ) ] + (10d ) – (3 nos. × 2d ) – (2 nos. × 3d)
Here, 10d is taken for hook length.
We have deducted 2d for 90° bend – 3nos., & 3d for 135° bend – 2nos. as shown in the above drawing.
= 2 nos. × [ ( 180 mm ) + ( 250 mm ) ] + (10 × 8mm) – ( 3 nos. × 2 × 8mm ) – ( 2 nos. × 3 × 8 mm.)
= 2 nos. × [ 430 mm ] + 80 mm – 48mm – 48mm.
= 860 mm + 80 mm – 96 mm.
= 844 mm i.e. 0.844 m.
Number of stirrups
= ( length of the plinth beam ÷ stirrup spacing ) + 1
where Length of Beam = Parameter – (0.75 x No. of footings) = 180 – (0.75 x 18)
here, length of the plinth beam = 166.5 ft = 50749 mm
= ( 50749 mm. ÷ 150 mm) +1
= 338.33+ 1
= 339.33 nos.
By rounding off, the no. of stirrups required = 340 nos.
Now, let us prepare a BBS (Bar Bending Schedule) table for the plinth beam.
sl. bar dia. no. length total weight total
no. ( mm) (m.) length kg/m weight
1. main bar 12 4 59.264 237.056 0.89 210.98
2. stirrups 8 340 0.844 286.96 0.395 113.35
Total weight of bars = 324.33 kgs.
Add 2% wastage = 6.49 kgs.
Grand total of rebars = 330.82 kgs.
Let us make a rcc column of size 9″ × 9″ as shown in the drawing.
Given data :
Column height above GL = 6 ft.+ 5″(0.416 ft.) = 6.416 ft., below GL = 7″ (0.583ft.)
Size of Column = 9″ × 9″ (228.6mm × 228.6 mm )
Longitudinal bars 12mm (0.03936 ft.) – 4 nos, cover – 40mm.
Lateral ties dia d1 – 6mm @ 6″ (150 mm.) c/c
From part 1, number of columns = 18 nos.
= total nos. × height × length× breadth
= total nos. × (height below GL + height above GL ) × length × breadth
= 18 nos. × ( 6.416 ft. + 0.583 ft. ) × 0.75 ft. × 0.75 ft.
= 18 nos. × 7 ft. × 0.75 ft × 0.75 ft.
= 70.875 cft. i.e. 2.0 cum.
Length of the longitudinal bar
= above GL + GL to footing top + development length ( Ld )
= 6.416 ft. + 0.583 ft. + ( 50d )
( we have taken Ld as 50d, where d = bar diameter.)
= 7 ft. + (50 × 0.03936 ft.)
= 7 ft. + 1.968 ft.
= 8.968 ft. i.e. 2.733 m.
Length of the lateral ties
= perimeter of lateral ties + total hook length – no. of bends
= 2 sides × ( a – 2 × cover ) + 2 sides × ( b – 2 × cover ) +( 2nos × hook length) – (3 nos. × bend )
( Here, we have taken hook length = 10d1 for 135°∠ & bend = 2d1 for 90°∟)
={ [ 2 × (228.6mm – 2 × 40mm.) ] + [ 2 × ( 228.6 mm – 2 × 40 mm.) ] } + { 2 × 10 × 6mm } – {3 × 2 × 6mm }
={ [ 2 × 148.6 mm ] + [2 × 148.6 mm ]} + 120 mm – 36 mm.
= {297.2 mm + 297.2 mm} + 84 mm
= 678.4 mm i.e. 0.678 m.
Total number of lateral ties ( stirrups )
={ [ length of the longitudinal bar – Ld ] ÷ stirrup spacing } + 1
Note: Ld is deducted from the length, as no stirrups are provided over that length.
= {[ 2733 mm – (50 × 12 mm )] ÷ 150 mm.} + 1
= {[ 2733mm – 600mm ] ÷ 150 mm.} + 1
= {2133 mm ÷ 150 mm.} + 1
= 14.22 + 1
= 15.22 nos.
Rounding off, the number of stirrups required = 15 nos.
Now, let us prepare BBS (Bar Bending Schedule) for a column.
sl. bar dia. no. length total weight total
no. ( mm) (m.) length kg/m weight
1. longitudinal 12 4 2.733 10.932 0.89 9.729
2. lateral 6 15 0.678 10.17 0.22 2.237
Total weight of bars = 11.966 kgs.
Add 5% wastage = 0.5983 kgs.
Grand total of rebars = 12.564 kgs.
The total weight of bars for compound wall columns
= 18 nos × 12.564 kgs = 226.152 kgs.
Let us build this compound wall of 6″ (inch) thickness having 6 ft. height as shown in the drawing.
The total length of the compound wall
= site perimeter – gate length
= (50ft. × 2 nos.) + (40 ft. × 2 nos.) – 10 ft.
= 100 ft. + 80 ft. -10 ft.
= 170 ft.
The total length of the block masonry wall
= compound wall length – (no. of columns × width of a single column.)
= 170 ft. – (18 nos.× 0.75 ft.)
= 170 ft. – 10.5 ft.
= 156.5 ft.
Height of the block masonry wall
= compound wall height – coping thickness
= 6 ft – 0.33 ft.
= 5.67 ft.
= length × height × thickness
= 156.5 ft. × 5.67 ft. × 0.5 ft.
= 433.68 cft.
Number of concrete blocks required
= 210 nos. × ( 433.68 cu ft. ÷ 100 cu ft.)
= 911 nos.
The number of cement bags required
= 1.038 bags × ( 433.68 cu ft. ÷ 100 cu ft.)
=4.501 bags.
The volume of sand required
= 7.634 cu ft. × ( 433.68 cu ft. ÷ 100 cu ft.)
= 33.12 cu ft.
Note: The above-given quantities are taken from the article “Calculating the quantity of materials in a 100 cubic ft. block wall.”
Let us make coping over block masonry work having 4″ (0.33 ft.) thickness in M15 grade.
= coping length × width × thickness
= block masonry length × masonry width × coping thickness
= 156.5 ft. × 0.5 ft. × 0.33 ft.
= 25.82 cu ft. i.e. 0.731 cu m.
Let us make this coping in M15 grade concrete.
The number of cement bags required for the coping work
=17.942 bags × (25.82 ÷ 100 cu ft. )
= 4.632 bags.
The total volume of sand required for coping
= 44 cu ft × (25.82 ÷ 100 cu ft. )
= 11.361 cu ft.
The total volume of coarse aggregates required
= 88 cu ft. × (25.82 ÷ 100 cu ft. )
= 22.722 cu ft.
Note: The above quantities for the calculation purpose is taken from “ Calculating the quantity of materials in 100 cu ft. & 1 cum. of M15 (1:2:4 ) grade concrete“.
Volume of Backfilling for plinth beam
picture
= Volume of excavation for plinth beam – beam PCC volume – plinth beam volume up to GL.
= [(186.90 cu ft.) – (52.33 cu ft.) – (124.875 cu ft. × 0.583 ft ÷ 1 ft.)
( By volume ratio with plinth beam 👆)
= 186.90 cu ft. – 52.33 cu ft – 72.802 cu ft.
= 61.768 cu ft.
Backfilling for footing:
=[ volume of excavation for footing – {footing vol. – soling vol. – PCC vol. – column vol. up to GL.}]
= [180 cu ft.- {33.74 cu ft. + 54 cu ft. + 23.76 cu ft.+ ( 18 nos × 0.583 × 0.75 × 0.75) } ]
= [180 cu ft – 117.40 cu ft.]
= 62.60 cu ft.
The total volume of backfilling
= backfilling for plinth beam + backfilling for footing
= 61.768 cu ft. + 62.60 cu ft.
= 124.368 cu ft. i.e. 3.52 cum.
First, we will sum up the total quantity of materials from all parts of this compound wall.
The volume of RCC for compound wall
= [for footings+ for plinth beam + for columns]
= [0.95 cum + 3.53 cum. + 2.0 cum.]
= 6.48 cum .i.e. 228.8 cu ft.
Let us make this RCC in M20-grade concrete.
The no. of cement bags required for RCC work
= [8.06 bags × ( 6.48 cum ÷ 1 cum )]
= 52.23 bags
The volume of sand required for RCC work
= [ 0.42 cum × ( 6.48 cum ÷ 1 cum )]
= 2.722 cum. i.e. 96.1 cu ft.
The volume of coarse aggregates required for RCC work
= [0.84 × ( 6.48 cum ÷ 1 cum )]
= 5.44 cum. i.e. 192.2 cu ft.
Note: The values i.e. directly added above is taken from “Calculating the quantity of materials in different grades of concrete“.
Now, we will sum up the total quantities of cement, sand, & aggregates required for the compound wall construction.
Note: The values i.e. mentioned below are taken from all above 8 parts of the series.
The total number of cement bags for compound wall.
= [for PCC + for masonry + for RCC + for coping]
= [17.16 + 4.501 + 52.23 + 4.632]
= 78.523 bags
The total volume of sand required in the compound works
= [for PCC + for masonry + for RCC + for coping ]
= [42.09 + 33.12 + 96.1 + 11.361]
= 182.671 cu ft.
The total volume of coarse aggregates required in the compound work.
= [for PCC + for RCC + for coping]
= [84.19 + 192.2 + 22.722]
= 299.11 cu ft.
The total weight of rebars required for the compound work.
= for footing + for plinth beam + for columns
= [56.55 kgs + 330.82 kgs. + 226.152 kgs.]
= 613.522 kgs.
In conclusion, preparing a compound wall estimate with a bar bending schedule is an essential part of the construction process. It ensures that the right amount of material and resources are utilized, making the construction process more efficient and cost-effective. A bar bending schedule also helps in ensuring the strength and stability of the wall, making it a crucial aspect of any construction project.
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]]>The post Flight of Stairs | How Many Flight of Stairs per Floor | Design Criteria appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>Need help figuring out how many flights of stairs you should use per floor? This guide provides easy-to-follow steps and explanations for calculating the correct number of steps in a flight of stairs, we will also discuss the meaning, definition, benefits, design criteria and how tall it is!
The term “stair” refers to a flight or series of steps that connect one floor to another. It is designed to provide simple and quick access to multiple floors.
A stair’s steps can be constructed as a flight of open, horizontal treads with room in between (like a ladder or foot-over bridge) or as closed steps with a vertical face between the treads, known as the riser. A staircase is an enclosure or area of a building with stairs.
What is Flight of Stairs Meaning:
The Flight of Stairs refers to a series of steps or a staircase that leads from one level (floor) of a building to another.
It can also refer to a set of stairs that connects multiple levels in a building, such as in a multi-story structure. The term can also be used to describe a group of stairs in an outdoor setting, such as a set of stairs that lead to a lookout point or the top of a hill.
They can be made of a variety of materials, including wood, concrete, and stone, and can be found in both residential and commercial buildings. They are used to provide access to different levels of a building and are typically located inside, but can also be found outside.
A Stairway or set of steps connecting one floor or landing to the next.
Between the landings, the flight is made up of a continuous staircase of stairs. If there are too many stairs (or steps) in one flight without landings between them, it can be tedious to climb and confusing to walk down, and the likelihood that a fall will result in serious injury is increased.
The number of steps required in a flight of stairs depends on several factors including the height of the floor and the desired height of each step.
The standard height of a stair step is 7 inches (17.78 cm) and the standard height of a floor is 8 feet (2.44 meters). This means that a flight of stairs that connects two floors with a height difference of 8 feet should have a minimum of 11 steps (8 feet / 7 inches per step = 11.428 steps).
Most of the flights of stairs average out at 12 steps or 13 steps. The precise number of steps, however, will depend on the needs of the building or structure, as well as factors like the width of the stairwell, the presence of landings, and the demand for accessibility.
The right number of steps for a particular flight of stairs should be determined by consulting an architect or building code specialist.
To find the number of flights of stairs per floor in a building, you can do the following:
It’s important to note that the method above is only an estimate and the actual number of stairs may vary.
Alternatively, you can use the building blueprints or architectural drawings to count the number of flights of stairs per floor.
There are several design criteria that must be considered when designing a staircase, including:
The height of the floor is generally known. The procedure for determining the number of treads and risers is as follow:
The positions of first and last risers are determined with regard to the positions of doors, windows and internal circulation area.
A convenient height of the riser is assumed.
Number of risers = Total floor height/Height of riser
Number of treads in a flight = number of risers – 1
Provision of headroom is must. Should preferably be not less than 2m.
It is not desirable to provide a flight with more than 12 steps or at the most 15 steps and not less than 3 steps.
Suitable landings should be provided for user’s comforts. The placement of a landing after a certain number of steps is regulated by statutory instruments and serves to guarantee improved safety.
Should be avoided as it is a discomfort in circulation.
Should be avoided. If at all required should be designed properly.
When a flight consists of more than three steps should be provided with a handrail. If the width of the stair is more, should be provided at both ends. In public buildings for wider steps should be provided in the center also. The height of the handrail should not be less than 80 cm.
The stairway’s flight of stairs has the following benefits or advantages:
One flight of stairs can conserve space in a house and also add to its architectural appeal because long, straight lines create nice sightlines in a room.
The ceiling height in a house is typically between 8 and 10 feet, with 8 feet being the most typical.
Houses with these high ceilings almost always have at least one flight of stairs, unless you have a split-level home.
In a typical home, there isn’t enough room for a landing and it isn’t necessary, therefore flights of stairs are obviously more common.
Landings are always only seen in buildings with more space between floors, even if long staircases may need them owing to space restrictions.
One straight run or stairway might be appropriate, but it might not be practical in your home.
A staircase can become a focal point by combining a consistent aesthetic with remarkable finish elements.
A landing is not necessary to break up a flight of steps that has been completed adequately.
The use of a landing may be necessary, in which case there would be two distinct “flights” of stairs as opposed to one.
If you choose floating stairs or adequately finished hardwood treads, a flight of steps can become a focal point in your home.
Calculating the number of steps required for a flight of stairs can be done in various ways, but the most straightforward method is to consider the overall height of the floor, including the width of the joists supporting the floor above and the thickness of the subfloor.
For example, in a house with 8-foot ceilings, a flight of stairs with a step rise of 7 ¾ inches would require 14 steps.
If the ceilings are 9 feet, then 16 steps would be needed with a step rise of 7 ¾ inches.
And if the ceiling is 10 feet, then a flight of stairs would require 17 steps with a step rise of 7 ¾ inches.
For example, your house has 8feet ceilings, with 10inches wide joists supporting the floor above.
To calculate the total number of steps for a flight of stairs with 8 feet ceilings and 10 inches wide joists supporting the floor above, you can use the following formula:
Total number of steps = (ceiling height (in inches) + joist width (in inches)) / height of each step (in inches)
If the height of each step is 7 inches and the joist width is 10 inches, the total number of steps for an 8-foot ceiling would be:
(8 feet x 12 inches/foot + 10 inches) / 7 inches = 113 inches / 7 inches = 16.14 steps
It’s important to note that this is an estimate, and the actual number of steps may vary depending on the specific design and construction of the stairs. Therefore, it’s best to consult with an architect or building code expert to determine the appropriate number of steps for a specific flight of stairs.
For this case, you will have to round up the number to 17 steps.
The length of a flight of stairs depends on several factors including the number of steps, the height of each step, and the width of the stairs.
Standard stair tread width is 10 inches (25.4 cm), and step height is 7 inches (17.78 cm) and the no. of steps are 12.
You can use the following formula to determine the length of a flight of stairs:
Formula: Waist Slab Length or Length of Flight of Stairs = c2 = (a2+b2)
For Example:
The Total Rise of Stair = A = Size of Riser x (Nos. of Steps)
The Total Rise of Stair = A = 7 x 12 = 84 in
The Total Run of Stair = B = Size of Tread x (Nos. of Steps)
The Total Run of Stair = B = 10 x 12 = 120 in
Waist Slab Length or Length of Flight of Stairs = c2 = (a2+b2)
Waist Slab Length = c2 = (842 + 1202)
Waist Slab Length = c = √(21,456)
Waist Slab Length = c = 146.48 in = 372.06 cm
It’s important to remember that the formula above is only a rough estimate, and the precise design and construction of the steps may affect how long a flight of stairs actually is.
The length of the flight of stairs will also vary depending on the stairway’s width; the broader the stairway, the longer the flight will be.
The height of a flight of stairs, also known as the total rise, is the vertical distance between the floor level of the starting and ending point of the stairs. It is determined by the number of steps and the height of each step.
A standard step height is 7 inches (17.78 cm) and the standard height of a floor is 8 feet (2.44 meters).
To calculate the height of a flight of stairs, you can use the following formula:
Formula: Height of flight of stairs = (number of steps x height of step)
For example, a flight of stairs with 14 steps and a step height of 7 inches would have a height of: 14 x 7 inches = 98 inches (2.489 meters)
It’s important to note that the formula above is an estimate and the actual height of a flight of stairs may vary depending on the specific design and construction of the stairs.
It’s also important to mention that, if the flight of stairs is not straight, but with some turns or landings the height will change, it’s important to measure the height of each section separately and then sum them up to get the total height of the flight of stairs.
The flat part of a stair is called the tread. A tread is the flat surface of a step that people walk on.
It is measured by the ratio of the rise over the run. For example, if the rise of the stairs is 7 inches and the run is 10 inches, the pitch would be 7/10 or 0.7.
The pitch of a staircase can affect the ease of use and safety of the stairs, as well as the amount of space required for the stairs. The minimum pitch of at least 42 degrees, to prevent people from tripping and falling.
Some codes and standards may permit a maximum slope of 45 degrees for residential, some codes are stricter and set the maximum angle to 37 degrees . This means that the stairs can have a maximum rise of 7 inches (17.78 cm) for every 12 inches (30.48 cm) of run.
A standard step height is 7 inches (17.78 cm) and the standard height of a floor is 8 feet (2.44 meters). This means that a flight of stairs that connects two floors with a height difference of 8 feet should have a minimum of 11 steps (8 feet / 7 inches per step = 11.428 steps). we can say 12 steps.
A stairwell, on the other hand, refers to the vertical space or shaft that contains a staircase. It is the area within a building that encloses and protects the staircase, and often includes other features such as landings, walls, and ventilation.
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]]>The post How to Calculate Load on Footing for Structural Support appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>In this blog post, we will explain how to calculate load on building footing and the different types of loads acting on it. We will also cover the formula and calculation used in the process, as well as the factors that can affect the load on a building footing or foundation load calculation. The post will also provide insight on why it’s important to consult a professional structural engineer for the proper calculation of loads on building footing and the foundation design.
Footing is one of the major structural elements that transfer the load safely to the soil. The slab load will transfer to the beam load, which will transfer to the column. The column will transfer the load to the footing, which has to safely transfer the load to the soil.
It is the lowermost part of the foundation that has been constructed below Ground level in solid surface.
Transfer the live load and dead loads of the structure over a large enough area so that neither the soil nor the building moves. Resist settlement and lateral load.
Before we begin the calculation, let’s take a look at the loads that will be applied to the footing.
Slab Thickness = 5″ = 0.125m
Footing Calculation Formula: Self Weight of Slab = Volume of Slab x Unit Weight of Concrete
Self Weight of Slab = (1 x 1 x 0.125) x 25
Self Weight of Slab = 3.125 KN/m^{2}
Floor Finish Load = 1.5 KN/m^{2}
Live Load = 2.0 KN/m^{2}
Total Load on Slab = Self weight of Slab + Floor Finish Load + Live Load
Total Load on Slab = 3.125 + 1.5 + 2.0 = 6.625 KN/m^{2}
Influence Area (C1) = L/2 x W/2
Influence Area (C1) = 3.88/2 x 3.12/2 = 1.94 x 1.56
Influence Area (C1) = 3.03 m^{2}
Slab Load on Column = Total Load on Slab x Influence Area (C1)
Slab Load on Column = 6.625 x 3.03
Slab Load on Column = 20.07 KN
Beam Size = 9″ x 15″ = 0.225 m x 0.375 m
Footing Calculation Formula: Self Weight of Beam = W = Unit Volume of Beam x Unit Weight of Concrete
Self Weight of Beam = W = (1 x 0.225 x 0.375) x 25
Self Weight of Beam = W = 2.11 KN/m
B1 Beam Load on Column C1/C2 = WL/2
B1 Beam Load on Column C1/C2 = (2.11 x 3.88)/2
B1 Beam Load on Column C1/C2 = 4.09 KN
B3 Beam Load on Column C1/C3 = WL/2
B3 Beam Load on Column C1/C3 = (2.11 x 3.12)/2
B3 Beam Load on Column C1/C3 = 3.29 KN
Total Load on C1 from Beams = 4.09 + 3.29
Total Beam Load on C1 from Beams = 7.38 KN
Plinth Beam Size = 9″ x 15″ = 0.225 m x 0.375 m
As we know that the size of beam is same as Plinth Beam so the Total Load on C1 from Plinth Beam are also same to the Total Load on C1 from Beams so,
Total Load on C1 from Plinth Beams = 7.38 KN
Height of Wall = Overall Height – Beam Depth
Height of Wall = 3 – 0.375 = 2.625 m
Footing Calculation Formula: Self Weight of Wall on Plinth Beam = W = Volume of Wall x Density of Bricks
Self Weight of Wall on Plinth Beam = W = (1 x 0.225 x 2.625) x 20
Self Weight of Wall on Plinth Beam = W = 11.81 KN/m
B1 Wall Load on Column C1/C2 = WL/2
B1 Wall Load on Column C1/C2 = (11.81 x 3.88)/2
B1 Wall Load on Column C1/C2 = 22.91 KN
B3 Wall Load on Column C1/C3 = WL/2
B3 Wall Load on Column C1/C3 = (11.81 x 3.12)/2
B3 Wall Load on Column C1/C3 = 18.42 KN
Total Load on C1 from Walls = 22.91 + 18.42 = 41.33 KN
Column Size = 9″ x 15″ = 0.225 m x 0.375 m
Height of Column = (Height Above Ground + Hight Below Ground) = 3 + 1.5 = 4.5 m
Footing Calculation Formula: Self Weight of Column = W = Volume of Column x Density of Concrete
Self Weight of Column = W = (0.225 x 0.375 x 4.5) x 25
Self Weight of Column = W = 9.49 KN
Size of Footing = 4′ x 4′ x 12″ = 1.22 m x 1.22 m x 0.30 m
Footing Calculation Formula: Self Weight of Footing = W = Volume of Footing x Density of Concrete
Self Weight of Footing = W = (1.22 x 1.22 x 0.30) x 25
Self Weight of Footing = W = 11.16 KN
Volume of Footing = 1.22 x 1.22 x 0.3 = 0.446 m^{3}
As we know that the size of footing excavation = 4′-4″ x 4′-4″ x 1.5= 1.32 m x 1.32 m x 1.5 m
Volume of Footing Excavation = 1.32 x 1.32 x 1.5 = 2.61 m^{3}
Volume of Filling = Volume of Footing Excavation – Volume of Footing
Volume of Filling = 2.61 – 0.446 = 2.164 m^{3}
As we know that Unit Weight of Earth = 18 KN/m^{3}
Backfilling Load = Volume of Filling x Unit Weight of Earth
Backfilling Load = 2.164 x 18 = 38.95 KN
In conclusion, determining the load on a building’s footings is an important phase in the building process. The building’s footings can withstand the weight of the structure if the calculations are done correctly, averting expensive and dangerous structural problems. The load on a building’s footings can be determined in a number of ways, including manually, via advanced structural design software, and by consulting an expert. It’s crucial to pick the best approach that works for your particular building project.
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]]>The post Calculate Bar Bending Schedule for One Way Slab appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>Bar bending schedules are vital in determining the quantities of reinforcement used in steel or concrete slabs. To find out bar bending schedules of slab, you should learn first Bar Bending Schedule Formula or Basics of Bar Bending Schedule and how to use concrete covers. We will also discuss about the rebar for concrete slab calculator, calculation formula, calculate rebar spacing, slab of steel quantity, reinforcement bbs bar bending schedule for slab and many more about the steel quantity for one way slab
In construction, there are 16 different slab varieties. Well, the thickness of a slab typically ranges from 4 to 8 inches. Generally, our slabs are 6′′ (0.15m) thick. We use slabs that are 8′′ and over in thickness for occasional heavy loads.
Before calculating the BBS of One Way Slab, we should know about the function and detail of one way slab;
One way slabs are those in which the ratio of longer spans (L) to shorter spans (B) is equal to or greater than 2. In a one-way slab, the load is carried in one direction, where main bars are designed, and in the opposite direction, where thin bars—known as distribution bars—are used instead of main bars to distribute the load.
One way slab = Longer span / shorter span > 2
Generally, slabs are classified into two types One-way Slab and Two-way slab, In one-way slab, Main bars run in the shorter direction (called Cranked bars) and distribution bars run in the longer direction (called Straight bars). In two-way slabs, Main bars are available in both directions.
These bars are straight bars
These bars have a crank. The main bars have a length of 0.42D and are cranked at a 45-degree angle.
Where, D = Depth of Slab- Top cover – Bottom cover
To maintain the slab’s structural stability, an additional bar is provided at the bottom of the Cranked bars.
L/4 is the length of the Extra bar ….. (rebar calculation formula)
How to Calculate Rebar for Slab
Given Data:
Now,
Step 1:- Calculate numbers of main rods.
No. of Main Bars = (Length of Slab)/ Spacing + 1
No. of Main Bars = (6000)/150 + 1
No. of Main Bars = 40 + 1
No. of Main Bars = 41 Nos.
Step 2:- Calculate cutting length of one main rods (rebar of slab).
Cutting length of one crank bar = Clear span of slab + ( 2 x Development Length) + (1 x inclined length) – (2 x 45 Bend)
Cutting length of crank bars = 3000 + ( 2 x 40d) + (1 x 0.42D) – (2 x 1d)
(Development length = 40d, inclined length = 0.42D, 45 Bend= 1d)
Where,
D = Thickness of slab – 2 x Side clear cover – diameter of bars
D = 150 – 2 x 25 – 16 = 84 mm
D = 84 mm
Cutting length of one crank bars = 3000 + ( 2 x 40 x 16) + (1 x 0.42 x 84) – (2 x 16)
Cutting length of one crank bars = 3000 + 1280 + 35.28 + 32
Cutting length of one crank bars = 4347.28 mm
Step 3:- Calculate Total length of main rods.
Therefore Total length of crank bars = Length of one crank bar x No. of crank bars …. (steel calculation formula)
Total length of crank bars = 4347.28 x 41 = 178238.48 mm
Total length of crank bars = 178.238 meter.
Step 4:- Calculate total weight of main rods (rebar for slab).
W1 = (d2 / 162.25) x Length ….. (steel calculation formula)
W1 = (162 / 162.25) x 178.238
W1 = 281.23 Kg
To find the Distribution Bars Cutting Length we will follow the following steps:
Step 1: – Calculate numbers of distribution rods.
To find the Bar Bending Schedule for Slab we use the following formula,
No. of Main bars = (Width of Slab/Spacing) + 1 …. (Rebar Calculation Formula)
No. of Main bars = (3000)/150 + 1
No. of Main bars = 20 + 1 = 21 Nos.
Step 2:– Calculate cutting length of one distribution bar.
Cutting length of one distribution bar = Length of Slab + 2 x development length
Cutting length of one distribution bar = 6000 + 2 x 40d
Cutting length of one distribution bar = 6000 + (2 x 40 x 12)
Cutting length of one distribution bar = 6000 + 960
Cutting length of one distribution bar = 6960 meter
Step 3:- Calculate Total length of distribution rods.
Therefore Total length of crank bars = Length of one crank bar x No. of crank bars
Total length of crank bars = 6960 x 21 = 146160 mm = 146.160 meter.
Step 4:- Calculate total weight of distribution rods.
W2 = (d2 / 162.25) x Length
W2 = (122 / 162.25) x 146.160
W2 = 129.72 kg
Length of top extra bar = L/4 = 3000/4 = 750 mm
No. of top extra bars = No. of Main bars = 41
Total length of Top extra bars = 750 x 41 = 30750 mm
Total length of Top extra bars = 30.750 meter
Therefore total weight of top extra bars = W3
W3 = (162 / 162.25) x 30.750
W3 = 48.52 Kg
Hence,
Total Weight of Steel Rod = Total Weight of crank bars + Total Weight of Distribution bars + Total weight of extra top bars
Total Weight of Steel Rod = W = W1 + W2 + W3
Total Weight of Steel Rod = W = 281.23 kg + 129.72 kg + 48.52 kg
Total Weight of Steel Rod = W = 459.47 kg
Hence, the final calculate weight of steel quantity is 459.47 Kg
Download Excel File
I sincerely hope you find this article on “Bar Bending Schedule for One Way Slab“ to be useful and how to calculate steel quantity for One Way Slab.
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]]>The post How to Calculate Quantity of Concrete Volume for Staircase appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>The volume calculation is one of the most important steps in constructing a staircase. Without knowing the right stair formula you may not be able to calculate the right amount of concrete needed for your staircase. Also discuss about the stairs quantity takeoff in excel calculator, concrete for steps, dog legged staircase, cost estimation of staircase with landing and much more.
Before, reading about “How to Calculate Quantity of Concrete Volume for Staircase” you should read first about the Introduction of Dog Legged Staircase.
A staircases is a part of a building that helps us move from one floor to another. It’s an important part of many buildings. The sizes of staircases vary, depending on the kind of building they’re meant to fit into.
Definition of Staircase: A flight or series of flights of steps and a supporting structure connecting separate levels.
A dog legged Staircase is a stair configuration that has a quarter-landing before turning at a right angle and continuing upwards. The flights do not have to be equal, and frequently are not.
A stair’s slab that slopes upward from the floor slab to the landing slab is referred to as the waist slab.
The series of steps from floor to the landing.
The transitional level between flights.
The step is made up of the tread and the riser.
The flat area you step on is known as the tread.
The vertical (up and down) portion of a stairway between each tread is known as a riser.
We need to calculate concrete volume for staircases for each component separately, then add them all up to find the total volume of concrete for dog legged staircases.
From the drawing:
Tread = 10″ = 0.833 ft
Riser = 6″ = 0.5 ft
Height of the Flight = 12 ft
Length of the Landing = 8′ – 6″ = 8.5 ft
Width of the Landing = 3 ft
Thickness of the Landing = 6″ = 0.5 ft
Length of Flight or Waist Slab = ?
Width or Length of Steps = 4 ft
No. of Riser = Height of the Flight / Riser = 12 / 0.5 = 12 Risers
No. of Treads = No. of Risers – 1 = 12 – 1 = 11 Treads
The Volume of Concrete for one step = Area of one Step x Length of Step
As you know that the shape of stair step is right angled triangle so we know the formula for the area of right angled triangle is:
Area of One Step = 1/2 x riser x tread
The Volume of Concrete for one step = 1/2 x riser x tread x Length of Step
Volume of Concrete for one step = 1/2 x 0.5 x 0.833 x 4
The Volume of Concrete for one step = 0.833 cft
Therefore, the total volume of concrete required for steps on first flight = Volume x No. of Steps
= 0.833 x 11 = 9.163 cft
The above calculation is only for one flight. We know that the second flight are having the same measurements:
so, Total Concrete = First Flight Concrete Volume x 2 = 9.163 x 2 = 18.326 cft
As per the given Plan,
Length of the Landing = 8′ – 6″ = 8.5 ft
Width of the Landing = 3 ft
Thickness of the Landing = 6″ = 0.5 ft
Volume of Landing = Length x Width x Thickness = 8.5 x 3 x 0.5 = 12.75 cft
As we know that, It is the right angled triangle in order to find the inclined length we use the Pythagoras theorem;
Inclined Length = √ (Horizontal Length)² + (Height)²
Horizontal Length = Tread Size X No. of Treads = 0.833 x 11 = 9.163 ft
As we know that Height = 12 ft, so,
Inclined Length = √ (Horizontal Length)² + (Height)²
– Inclined Length = 15.09 ft
Concrete Volume of Waist Slab = Inclined Length x width of Slab x Thickness of Slab
Concrete Volume of Waist Slab = Inclined Length x width of Slab = 15.09 x 4 x 0.5 = 30.18 cft
As we know that there are two flights with two waist slabs so,
Total Volume of Waist Slab = Volume of Waist Slab x 2 = 30.18 x 2 = 60.36 cft
Staircases Concrete Volume = Steps Volume + Landing Space Volume + Waist Slabs Volume
Staircases Concrete Volume = 18.326 + 12.75 + 60.36 = 91.436 cft
Staircase Concrete Volume = 91.436 cft
Now we will find the material analysis of dog legged staircases concrete;
Wet Volume of Staircases Concrete = 91.436 cft
Dry Volume of Staircase Concrete = 91.436 x 1.54 = 140.81 cft
Ratio of Concrete = 1 : 1.5 : 3 (c : s : a)
Sum of Ratios = 1 +1.5 + 3 = 5.5
so, Cement Content in Concrete = Dry Volume of Concrete / Sum of Ratios x Ratio of Cement
Cement Content in Concrete = 140.81 / 5.5 x 1 = 25.60 cft
As we know that, 1 Cement Bag (50 kg) = 1.25 cft
No. of Cement Bags = 25.60 / 1.25 = 20.48 = 21 Bags (Say)
Sand Content = Dry Volume of Concrete / Sum of Ratios x Ratio of Sand
Sand Content = 140.81 / 5.5 x 1.5 = 38.40 cft Sand
Stone Chips or Aggregates = Dry Volume of Concrete / Sum of Ratios x Ratio of Aggregates
Stone Chips or Aggregates = 140.81 / 5.5 x 3 = 76.80 cft Aggregate
Now lets calculate the water content of staircase concrete. Suppose, water-cement ratio for staircase concrete is specified 0.45.
That means, water/cement = 0.45, or W/C = 0.45
for 1 bag cement, water is, = 0.45 x 1.25 (as we know, 1 bag cement equal to 1.25 cft),
Water = 0.5625 cft.
As we know 1 cubic feet water is equal to 28.31685 litre,
So we can write, water = 0.5625 x 28.31685 = 15.92 litre, say, 16 litre.
So One bag of Cement needs 16 liter of water for 0.45 W/C ratio.
Required Water Content for Staircase Concrete = Req Quantity of Cement Bags x 16 litres
Total Required Water Content for Staircase Concrete = 21 x 16 = 336 litres
Cement = 21 Bags
Sand = 38.40 cft Sand
Aggregates = 76.80 cft Aggregate
Water = 336 litres
Cement = 21 Bags x 1070 RS/Bag = 22,470 RS
Sand = 38.40 cft x 65 RS/cft = 2,496 RS
Aggregates = 76.80 cft x 50 RS/cft = 3,840 RS
Water = 336 litres x 2.50 RS/litre = 840 RS
Total Cost = 22,470 + 2,496 + 3,840 + 840 = 29,646 RS
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]]>The post Dog Legged Staircase, Components & Design of Dog Legged Stair appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>In this article we will discuss Dog Legged Staircase and their facts, advantages, disadvantages, dog Leg Staircase plan, stair design calculator with an example calculation for rise and tread, calculation formula for stairs, risers and treads and how to calculate design of staircase calculations.
A stair is a structure with a series of steps meant to provide a simple and easy means of ascending and descending between levels or floors. The room or enclosure at the top of the stairs is known as a landing, and the space at the bottom of the stairs is called a step.
The dog-legged staircase is a type of staircase that consists of two flights of stairs running in opposite directions.
The stairs are designed such that they turn and continue to move upward two steps before making a 180-degree turn, thus maintaining their upward trajectory.
This type of staircase, which resembles the shape of a dog’s leg in the sectional elevation, is also known as dog-legged.
The dog-legged staircase is efficient at utilizing the space available, making it an excellent choice for residential, public and commercial buildings. It also allows for better circulation and compact space utilization.
The dog-legged staircase looks like a dog in elevation. It has a sloped angle similar to the slope between the dog’s legs.
No, the length of both flights isn’t needed to be equal. Most of the time, it is kept unequal.
This type of staircase is used in residential, commercial, institutional, and public buildings.
If you don’t have much space, the stairs can be the best. Typically this staircase will be sized two times larger than its tread width.
A Dog-Legged Staircase Plan consist of components such as:
The part of the staircase on which your foot lands is called a tread.
The space between two stair treads is called a riser.
The vertical post at the start and end of the flight is called a newel post. It supports the stairs and creates a resting place for your feet as you climb up or down.
A baluster is a vertical support installed throughout the length of a flight on which a handrail is supported to prevent falls.
Landing is a platform provided to break the continuity of flight for providing rest to the user.
A handrail is the part of the staircase that people hold onto for support when going up and down the stairs. The handrail must provide stability and a continuous guide along the stair.
A stair stringer is the housing that holds the treads and risers in place on either side of a flight of stairs.
The angle at which a line of nosing makes with a horizontal surface is called pitch.
The line of going is a hypothetical imaginary line parallel to the slope of the staircase that joins the nosing.
The criteria or requirements to consider while designing a dog-legged staircase are discussed below.
The following is a list of the numerous steps that went into creating the dog-legged staircase:
First, it is anticipated that each tread will need the height of the rise and the length needed.
Depending on the type of building, the needed length for each tread must be between 250mm and 350mm, while the required height of the rising must be between 150mm and 200mm.
Then, the width of the stairs is determined
Width of stairs = Total width of staircase/2
The height of each flight is then determined.
Height of each flight = Total height/2
The Nos of risers in each flight is calculated.
No. of risers in each flight = Height of each flight / Height of riser in each flight
The Nos of treads is then calculated.
No. of tread in each flight = No. of risers in each flight – 1
Then, the total length required for treads is determined as,
Total length required for treads = Length required for each tread x no. of treads in each flight
The length that is left over is then determined by deducting the length taken up by the treads from the total length that is available.
Remaining length = Total length – Total length occupied by the treads
The length of the landing is then assumed and subtracted from the above calculated remaining length to determine the amount of space that needs to be left for the passage.
Passage space = Remaining length – Length of landing
In the case that the passage space is not required, the length of the tread can be increased such that all of it is covered by treads and landings.
Answer the following question to construct a dog-legged staircase with the specified size for a residential structure.
The vertical distance between the floors in the building is 3.9 metres. The staircase’s stated dimensions are 3.6 x 5 m.
Let, the height of riser is 150mm and the length required for each tread be 250mm respectively.
Let, the number of flights is 2. Now,
Width of stairs = 3.6 / 2 = 1.80 m = 1800 mm
Height of each flight = 3.9 / 2 = 1.95 m = 1950 mm
No. of risers in each flight= Height of each flight / Height of riser in each flight
= 1950 / 150 = 13 risers
No. of tread in each floor = No. of risers in each flight – 1
= 13 – 1 = 12 treads
Total length required for treads = 12 x 250 mm = 3000 mm = 3 m
Remaining Length = 5 m – 3 m = 2 m
Space for Passage = 2 m – 1.5 m
(assume width of landing = 1.5m)
= 2 m – 1.5 m = 0.5 m
For Stair Design Calculator please follow the table below:
Type of stair | Dog legged | |
Assumed height of the riser | 160 mm | |
Assumed depth of tread | 230 mm | |
Number of flight | 2 | |
Height of floor | 3500 | |
Number of riser | (3500/2) /160 = 10.93 = 11 Riser | |
Number of treads | R-1 = 11 – 1 = 10 | |
Width of Landing | No. of tread * depth of tread = 11 * 230 = 2530 |
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]]>The post Curing Concrete – How Long it Takes & How To Cure appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>The article will clearly explain the Find out the secret behind curing concrete and learn all about the different types or methods of curing, cure time for concrete, and the purposes of cured concrete. Read our guide to understand how long time or curing period you should let it cure, and what types of curing are best for your project.
Curing is a process that occurs during which a chemical or physical reaction takes place, resulting in a harder, tougher or more stable linkage or substance. Some curing processes require maintenance of certain temperatures and/or humidity levels, while others require a certain pressure.
Curing is the process by which concrete hardens. When you add water to a concrete mixture (cement, sand and aggregate), an exothermic reaction takes place (oxygen combining with carbon dioxide) that helps the concrete harden. This happens very quickly, but it takes a long time for the concrete to actually become dry. So, the concrete is kept moist until the hydration reaction in concrete completes. This process is called “Curing of Concrete.”
or
Curing is the process that keeps concrete moist to protect it from loss of moisture due to atmospheric temperature and hydration reactions.
Hydration describes the relationship between water and cement. This reaction is exothermic (which releases heat). Hydration begins when water is added to the concrete mixture, which causes the concrete to start drying out quickly. In order to prevent concrete from drying out before reaching its maximum strength, concrete is maintained moist via curing.
After hardening, concrete doesn’t reach its full strength instantly. It has to go through the curing process first. As a result, you have to wait a little longer before putting any weight on it – so if you’ve just laid a driveway, keep your car away from it:
The concrete mix actually gets stronger as time goes on, but to reach practical strength, most industrial concrete mixes have a 28 day curing period or cure time for concrete
After seven days, the concrete will have gained around three quarters of its compressive strength. However, you should refrain from driving vehicles or heavy machinery over the surface until after 28 days.
For concrete that you’re going to use in your driveway, it should set within 24-48 hours. But if you want to park the family car on it for 28 days, be sure to let it cure for that long before driving over it. You might think your concrete is strong enough after taking a test walk on it, but overloading it before it’s fully cured could undo all the hard work you’ve put into its construction.
As per IS 456 – 2000 | Concrete should not be cured under 7 days for ordinary Portland Cement and at least 10 days for concrete with mineral admixtures or blended cement. In case of hot weather and arid temperature conditions, the curing should not be less than 10 Days for OPC and 14 days for concrete with blended cement & mineral admixtures.
The minimum curing period of concrete structures is dependent on the type of cement used.
Table-A: Cure time of Concrete Based on Types of Cement
Types of Cement | Curing Time |
Type I, ASTM C 150—When the special attributes listed for any other type are not necessary, use this type. | 7 days |
Type II, ASTM C 150—When a moderate sulphate resistance is necessary, for general use, but especially. | 10 days |
Type III, ASTM C 150— When a high level of early strength is wanted, utilise. | 3 days |
Type IV, ASTM C 150—For used when a low heat of hydration is desired. | 14 days |
Type V, ASTM C 150—For used when high sulfate resistance is desired. | 14 days |
Hydraulic Cement, Blended Hydraulic Cements, Expansive Hydraulic Cement | Varies |
Table-B: Minimum Concrete Cure Time for Different Types of Construction
Construction types | Examples | Curing period, days |
Pavement and other slabs on grounds | Highway pavement, airfield pavements, canal lining, parking lots, driveway, walkways, and floors | Refer to Table-A |
Buildings, bridges, and other structures | Cast-in-place walls, columns, slab, beams, all other portions of buildings except slab-on-grade, small footings, piers, retaining walls, tunnel linings, and conduits. | Refer to Table-A |
Unreinforced huge portions not incorporating crushed granulated blast furnace slag or pozzolan | – | 14 |
Massive unreinforced sections that comprise pozzolan or ground-granulated blast furnace slag | – | 21 |
Reinforced mass concrete | – | 7 |
Colored concrete floor and slabs | – | 7 |
Shrinkage-compensating concretes | – | 7 |
Roller-compacted concretes | – | 14 |
Shotcretes | – | 7 |
Days | Compressive Strength |
1 Day | 16% |
3 Day | 40% |
7 Day | 65% |
14 Day | 90% |
28 Day | 99% |
The cure time or period of concrete is dependent on the following factors:
There are various methods of curing concrete or Types of Curing, which are used on the site depending upon the size and nature of the work. There are three major methods of curing concrete by which concrete can be kept moist and humid or kept at a favorable temperature. Here we have given brief information on some of these methods.
Following are the most important techniques which are prominently used for concrete curing all over the world.
This method of floor slab construction involves the use of concrete that has been allowed to harden for 14 days. The concrete is divided into small ponds, and these ponds are filled with water continuously until the surface is completely covered.
This type of method is used for columns, footings and the bottom surface of slabs where ponding cannot occur. Impermeable coverings like gunny bags or hessian are required to cover the concrete; these membranes sprayed with water to keep moisture in.
Ponds are not suitable in high-temperature areas. Water evaporates when the air outside is too hot. To prevent this, membranes are used to keep the concrete dry and retain its moisture.
The membrane curing process seals off by forming an impermeable layer on the concrete surface, preventing evaporation.
This procedure is generally performed by spraying or brushing a curing compound onto the concrete.
There are numerous curing agents available to achieve membrane curing; nevertheless, the following four techniques are crucial and frequently employed.
When applied to a concrete surface, synthetic resin hardens into an impermeable membrane that prevents water from evaporating from the concrete.
The synthetic resin membrane can be simply removed before continuing with the plastering process by sprinkling hot water over the concrete surface.
Therefore, it is appropriate for locations where concrete will receive further treatment.
Acrylic-based curing compound is a polymer-based curing compound obtained from the polymers of acrylic acid.
The best part of this compound is that it does not need to be removed for plastering; it helps achieve excellent adhesion to plastering.
Wax curing compound has similar properties to synthetic resin. However, it is not recommended for use on surfaces to be painted or tiled because it will hamper the adhesion between surface and plastering or tiling.
When chlorinated rubber is used to seal the concrete, it forms a thick membrane that seals the pores of the concrete effectively without leaving any minute holes.
However, chlorinated rubber is very expensive and it tends to deteriorate over time.
The process of spraying steam on precast concrete has been adopted at a precast concrete plant where the concrete members are mass-produced. Steam has heat moisture in it and is sprayed on the surface of the concrete to keep its moisture content high and also increase its temperature.
This helps speed up the curing process, which eventually results in more durable concrete.
In areas with a chilly climate, this approach is used. In this process, the concrete is exposed to infrared radiation, raising its starting temperature and enhancing its strength. As boosting the beginning temperature of concrete does not reduce the final strength of concrete, this approach is more successful than steam curing.
This method is used for hollow concrete members, where heaters are installed in concrete members to emit 90 degree.
In this method, alternating current is applied to concrete. Two electrodes—one at the top and another at the bottom of the cured concrete surface—function as electrodes, and then an alternating voltage is generated between them. By maintaining a 30V or 60V potential difference between these electrodes, curing by this method can be achieved in three days; however, curing at 28 days requires only three days.
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]]>The post Gable Roof | Types of Gable Roof | Parts Advantages & Disadvantages appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>Roofs are an essential part of every building structure. Without them, the rest of the building would be exposed to rain, hail, frost and other weather conditions. Since they play such an important role in protecting the rest of the building, many different types of roofs have been designed over time. One such type is a gable roof. We will also discuss the types of Gable Roof here;
The gable roof is a type of roof that is very common in cold climates.
It’s also known as the classical or Gabled roof. It is made up of two roof sections sloping in opposite directions, which meet at the highest horizontal edges to form the roof ridge.
The gable roof is also called a pitched roof. It has two sloping sides which meet to form a ridge at the top center of the structure. Most buildings, including many modern homes, use this type of roof.
A gable roof system can add an interesting twist to a modern design by giving it a distinctive look, mixing and matching various elements like decor, functionality, and elegance.
As a result of this, gable roofs are more common over the world due to their ease of construction.
The gable-style roof has a long history in Greek culture. A gable-style roof was utilized to make a roof for a Greek temple in ancient times. The gable roof increasingly gained popularity in countries such as Europe and America.
Gable roof shapes are still utilized to create buildings in certain European and American countries today.
Buildings with gabled roofs became common between the 14th and 17th centuries. The building of gable roofs also affected Italian architecture during this time.
following are five gable roof types,
A box gable roof has a triangular extension at each end of the house, with a boxed section of roof at each end. The design is extremely similar to the standard gable roof, but distinguishes itself with its triangular shape.
A front gable roof is positioned at the front of the house, with the front door under the gable. This is common in Colonial-style homes, but recent years have seen this type of design become increasingly popular.
A cross gable roof is another type of gable roof which created when two or more gable rooflines intersect at an angle. Cross gable roofs often result in more complex layouts for homes, as the change in shape will affect the structure of the house. For example, some homes with cross gable roofs have separate wings, larger porches, or attached garages.
Many property owners extend the length of their homes by adding a shed roof to the gable roof ridge. This hybrid design is a popular solution for extending, as it provides the opportunity for more headroom and space without having to completely alter the structure and aesthetics of the roof.
A Dutch gable roof is a hybrid of a gable and hip roof. The typical design composes of the gable roof being placed on top of the hip roof, providing more space within the loft. This is a popular design with many property owners.
From the roof ridge point, the gabled roof structure is made up of two opposite side parts. The apex of the gable roof connects the two side slope parts. This is referred to as the ridge point.
The gable roof’s pitch and gutter are designed in accordance with the building’s design. A ridge board runs parallel to the rooftop and outside walls, giving the roof its shape.
Between the tops of two common rafters is the ridge board. This ridge board is nailed to the rafters. The rafter is secured in such a way that the slope continues to be downward. Along the exterior walls, the rafter is attached to the nail.
The main parts of gable roof are Eaves, Gable, Flashing, Hip, Ridge, Purlins, Fascia, Rafter, Battens, and, Joist.
The lower portion of the roof projects beyond the outer wall. These are the sides of a roof that overhang a structure.
The eave of a typical home, usually in the attic, is an excellent place to install insulation because it connects the outside wall to the roof.
Gables are the triangular upper parts of walls at the ends of ridges in roof structures. In recent buildings, gable ends are treated in similar ways as classical pediments. However, unlike classical structures that operate through trabeation, many bearing-wall structures have gable ends.
The shape of the gable and how it is detailed are determined by such things as the structural system used, material availability and aesthetic concerns.
Flashing is used to prevent water from seeping into the cracks between roof coverings and other parts of the structure.
Hip is formed when two sloped surfaces join to form a ridge with an outward angle of more than 180°.
The ridge of a roof is the horizontal intersection where two roof surfaces meet.
Purlins are horizontal members that help to provide support to the principal rafters in a wall-to-wall roof. Purlins need to be painted before they are set into place, so as not to get damaged during installation.
Upon fascia, the materials that cover the lowermost roof rests.
A rafter is the horizontal structural component along the top of a gable roof that extends from the support to the ridge. Multiple rafters are used side by side, with one between each purlin.
In addition to common rafters, hip rafters, jack rafters, and valley rafters, you can use steel rafters to frame the roof.
Battens are attached to common rafters or on the top of ceiling boards and are thin strips of wood. They are also made of metal or plastic.
After the Types of Gable Roof we should focus on The advantages and Disadvantages of gable roofs which are explained below;
A homeowner can gain more space with this type of roof, which has a sloped or triangular design.
There is an additional attic space and better ventilation throughout the property.
Building with wood is simpler, so the overall cost and installing of a building made of wood is lower than the cost of other types of buildings.
As a result of its sloped design, this type of roof has an efficient drainage system and can minimize the risk of leaks.
This is because rain and snow can easily slide off and will ensure that your roof lasts longer.
When building, many material options are available. Concrete tiles, clay tiles, and metal sheets can all be used in construction.
It is important to install a gable roof properly with the right materials and supported by adequate framing so that it can last for many years.
If there is a hurricane during any time of the year, this type of roofing is not recommended.
If anyone lives in areas with stable weather, this roof is suitable for them to use. But if they lived in a place that has extreme weather, the construction of the roof could collapse if hit by strong winds.
As it is composed of a frame and a tile roof, you need to be aware that the roof is exposed to sun and rain.
This roof is easily cracked and must be repaired. Adding heat-resistant and waterproof coatings to the roof will make it more durable.
The sloping shape of a gable roof makes it less likely for water to leak into the house, but if the slope is too gentle, then the roof will collapse under heavy rain.
If a roof’s slope is low, the roof is more vulnerable to collapse. A high angle for the slope of the roof should be made so that this does not happen.
Generally, the cost of building a roof averages anywhere from $8 to $16 per square foot. A roof of 1,000 square feet would cost anywhere from $8,000 to $16,000. Additional gables and dormers increase the cost.
The longevity of a roof is determined by how effectively it was installed and the materials used. A correctly fitted roof can survive for 40 years on average, and even longer if the supporting framework is suitable.
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]]>The post Structural Load Calculation on Beam Colum Slab and Staircase appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>In a frame-type structure, we must know about the various loads that may be coming on the columns, beams, or slabs. calculate load on beam column wall slab and staircase, structural calculation
The frame structure transfers the load from the slab to beam, from beam to column, and finally to the foundation of the building. structural load calculation
The stress on a beam, joint, slab, column, etc. The load is the most important consideration when designing structural elements.
It can be a live load or a dead load.
When loads are applied to structures, they undergo deformations and displacements, which can cause stresses.
The Beam is a horizontal structural member in building construction that carries shear force, bending moment, and transfers loads to columns on both ends of it.
The bottom of the beam experiences tension and the top experiences compression. Therefore, more steel is used at the bottom than at the top. structural load calculation
A column is a vertical structural member that supports loads from above. For example, a column might support the weight of a ceiling, floor or roof slab or support the weight of a beam.
It is a Compression member, We use columns to hold up buildings and other structures. They can be made of steel, reinforced concrete, wood, or composite materials. The column’s cross-section can take any shape that’s necessary for the load it must sustain.
A slab is a flat horizontal surface, such as the floor of a building, that is supported by beams and columns. A slab is usually several inches thick and can be created by pouring concrete over other materials.
Concrete slabs can be poured on-site or off-site or maybe poured in-situ using formwork, but they are typically poured on-site. If reinforcement is required, the concrete can be pre-stressed or rebar can be placed within the formwork before the concrete is poured.
When you are calculating load on slab, you have to first check whether it is a one way slab or two way slab structural load calculation
How to check weather’s its one way or two way :
If the ratio of longer span to shorter span is greater than 2 then the slab is considered as one way and if its less than 2 then this slab will be two way slab.
or in simple terms, structural load calculation
L (length) / B (breath) > 2 , then its a One Way Slab and
L / B < 2 then its a Two Way Slab. calculate load on beam
The picture attached below shows the load distribution pattern in one way slab and two way slab. structural load calculation
For one way slab : The formula for load distribution is (Lx/2) x W, where Lx is the shorter span and W is the load (self weight of beam + weight of the wall above the beam + live load on slab). calculate load on beam
Whereas for two way slab, the load distribution pattern follows 2 trapezoid and 2 triangles, so the formula splits into
Triangle region : [(Lx * W)/3] calculate load on beam
Trapezoidal region : [ ((Lx * W)/6) (3 – (Lx/Ly))^2]
The dead load and live load on the structure acts on the slab are efficiently transferred from slab to beams, which in turn transmit the loads to columns. The columns then transmit the loads to the supports and finally to the underlying earth through the foundation. calculate load on beam calculate load on staircase
There are mainly two categories of load acts on building structure:
1) Column Self Weight X Number of floors
2) Beams Self Weight per running meter
3) A load of walls per running meter
4) The total load on Slab (Dead load + Live load + Self-weight)
As per the given house plan: calculate load on column
Thickness of Slab = 130 mm (5″)
Size of All Beams = 230mm x 300mm (9″ x 12″)
Size of All Columns = 230mm x 300mm (9″ x 12″)
Size of flooring = We will calculate the size of footing based on load coming on building
Self Weight of Slab = Slab Thickness x Unit weight of RCC
Self weight of Slab = 0.13 m x 25 KN/m^{3} = 3.25 KN/m^{2}
calculate load on column
Floor Finish Load on Slab = usually we take (1 – 1.5 KN/m^{2})
Partition Wall Load on Slab = usually we take 1 KN/m^{2}
Waterproofing Material Load = usually we take 1 KN/m^{2}
calculate load on column
Total Dead Load o Slab = 3.25 + 1.5 + 1 + 1 = 6.75 KN/m^{2}
Live Load on Slab for residential building = 2 – 3 KN/m^{2}
Dead Load on Slab = 6.75 KN/m^{2 }
Live Load on Slab = 3.0 KN/m^{2}
Total Load on Slab = 6.75 + 3.0 = 9.75 KN/m^{2}
Total Load on Slabs (All building Slabs) = 9.75 x 2 = 19.5 KN/m^{2} (where take 2 for G+1 Story) calculate load on column
Consider Factor of Safety = 1.5
Total Factored Load on Slab = 1.5 x 19.5 = 29.25 KN/m^{2}
Thickness of waist Slab = 150 mm
Riser = 150 mm calculate load on staircase
Tread = 250 mm calculate load on column
Self weight of waist Slab = waist slab thickness x unit weight of RCC x [{sqrt(R2) + sqrt(T2)}/T] calculate load on slab
Self weight of waist Slab = 0.15m x 25 KN/m^{3} x [{sqrt(0.152) + sqrt(0.252)}/0.25]
Self weight of waist Slab = 4.37 KN/m^{2}
Self weight of Steps = R/2 x 25 = 0.15/2 x 25 = 1.875 KN/m^{2}
Floor Finish Load on Staircase = 1.0 KN/m^{2}
Live Load on Staircase = 3.0 KN/m^{2}
Total Load on Going = 4.37 + 1.875 + 1.0 + 3.0 = 10.25 KN/m^{2}
Ultimate Load on Going = 1.5 x 10.25 = 15.36 KN/m^{2}
Self weight of landing = Thickness of landing slab x density
Self weight of landing = 0.15 x 25 = 3.75 KN/m^{2}
Floor finish load on staircase = 1.0 KN/m^{2}
Live Load on Staircase = 3.0 KN/m^{2}
Total Load on Landing = 3.75 + 1.0 + 3.0 = 7.75 KN/m^{2}
Ultimate Load on Landing = 7.75 x 1.5 = 11.625 KN/m^{2}
Self weight of Beam = Size of Beam x unit weight of RCC
Self weight of Beam = (0.23 x 0.30)m x 25 KN/m^{3} x 2 = 3.45 KN/m (Where 2 is taken for G+1 Story) calculate load on slab
Wall Load on Beam = Thickness of Wall x Height x Unit weight of material
Main Wall Load on Beam = 0.23m x 3m x 19 KN/m^{3} = 13.11 KN/m
Partition Wall Load on Beam = 0.1m x 3m x 19 KN/m^{3} = 5.7 KN/m
Parapet Wall Load on Beam = 0.2m x 1.2m x 19 KN/m^{3} = 4.56 KN/m
Wall Plastering Load on Beam = 0.012m x 3 x 2 x 20.4 KN/m^{3} = 1.468 KN/m
Total Load on Beam 1 = Self weight + Main wall Load + Parapet wall Load + Wall Plastering Load + Load from Slab (trapezoidal load) calculate load on slab
Total Load on Beam 1 = (3.45 + 13.11 + 4.56 + 1.468 + 40.71) KN/m
Total Load on Beam 1 = 63.29 KN/m calculate load on wall
Total Factored load on Beam 1 = 1.5 x 63.29 = 94.95 KN/m
Total Load on Beam 3 = Self weight + Main wall Load + Parapet wall Load + Wall Plastering Load + Load from Slab (trapezoidal load) calculate load on slab
Total Load on Beam 3 = (3.45 + 13.11 + 1.468 + 35.685 + 35.685) KN/m
Total Load on Beam 3 = 89.39 KN/m calculate load on wall
Total factored Load on Beam 3 = 1.5 x 89.39 = 134.09 KN/m
Total factored load on Beam 2 and 5 = 1.5 x 58.26 = 87.40 KN/m
Self weight of column = size of column x height x unit weight
Self weight of column = (0.23 x 0.3)m x 3m x 25 KN/m^{3} x 2 = 10.35 KN (where 2 is taken for G+1 Story) calculate load on slab
Total factored load on Beam 1 = 94.95 KN/m
Total factored load on Beam 2 = 87.40 KN/m
Load from Beam = Half Load from Beam 1 + Half Load from Beam 2
Load from Beam = (94.95 x 4.26/2) + (87.40 x 3.66/2) = 362.18 KN
Load on Column 1 = 10.35 KN + 362.18 KN = 372.53 KN
Load from Beam = Half Load from (Beam 1 + Beam 5 + Beam 3)
Load from Beam = (94.95 x 4.26/2) + (87.40 x 3.66/2) + (134.09 x 3.66/2) = 607.57 KN
Load on Column 2 = 10.35 KN + 607.57 KN = 617.92 KN
Assume, SBC of Soil as 200 KN/m^{2}
Load from Column 1 = 372.53/1.5 = 248.35 KN
Self weight of footing = 10% of unfactored column load
Self weight of footing = 10/100 x 248.35 = 24.83 KN
Total Load on Footing 1 = 248.35 + 24.83 = 273.2 KN
calculate load on slab
Area of footing = Total Load/SBC of Soil = 273.2/200 = 1.36 m^{2}
calculate load on wall
If for square footing, we take length = breadth
size of footing L = B = sqrt(1.36) = 1.16m
calculate load on wall
If for rectangular footing,
Assume one side of footing (B) = 1.0 m Length of footing (L) = 1.36/1.0 = 1.36 = 1.4m (say) calculate load on staircase
Size of footing (L x B) = 1.4 m x 1.0 m
Take SBC of Soil as 200 KN/m^{2}
Load from column 2 = 617.92/1.5 = 411.95 KN
Self weight of footing = 10% of 411.95 = 41.19 KN
Total load on footing 2 = 411.95 + 41.19 = 453.14 KN
calculate load on staircase
Area of footing = Total Load/SBC of Soil = 453.14/200 = 2.26 m^{2}
calculate load on staircase
If for rectangular footing,
Assume one side of footing (B) = 1.4 m
Length of footing = 2.26/1.3 = 1.60 = 1.6m
Size of footing 2 (L x B) = 1.6m x 1.4m
To find the size of footing, load considered should be service load for isolated footing.
For any building to find the size of footing, use a combination of loads i,e
For Gravity loads, load combinations are,
1.0 (DL + LL) – Most critical combination is selected
1.5 (DL + LL) – Most critical combination is selected
In above example, we took 1.5 as factor of safety calculate load on staircase
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]]>The post What is Soak Pit | Estimate of Soak Pit | Design | Excel File Download appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
]]>In this article, we will discuss about the, What is Soak Pit, Estimate of Soak Pit, Design of Soak Pit, Its Purpose, Function, Advantages and Disadvantages, Construction Procedure, Quantity etc Estimate of Soak Pit
A Soakage Pit is a covered, porous-walled chamber that allows water to slowly soak into the ground. The pre-settled sewage from the septic tank is released to the underground chamber, where it infiltrates into the neighboring soils. Estimate of Soak Pit
When wastewater is discharged into a soak-pit, it slowly soaks into the ground. The soak-pit is connected to a primary treatment unit and serves as a connection between the septic tank and the ground. Quantity of Soak Pit
A Soak pit or soakaway is a rectangular or circular underground porous chamber that allows wastewater from the septic tank to drain off slowly into the ground.
When the greywater passes through the soak pit, smaller particles of effluents settle at the bottom of the soak pit. Microorganisms digest these smaller particles, and then filtered water is discharged out through porous walls. Quantity of Soak Pit
The following are some of the important functions of a soak pit;
An open pit is dug in the ground and lined with porous material or left unlined and filled with gravel and coarse rocks. A stratum of sand and fine gravel is spread across the lowermost layer to aid in the dispersion of water. The pit is then covered on top.
The following are some of the conditions that should be considered for the design of a soak pit.
We will follow the following steps during the construction procedure of Soak Pit:
First, decide how big the pit should be based on how much space you have and how many people will be using it. Usually, a pit that’s (1 x 1 x 1.2) m3 is suitable for a family with 4- 5 members, which has the capacity to carry 300 per day.
Second, Excavate the pit of the required size. Manual excavation is preferred as it is less expensive than mechanical excavation. Function of Soak Pit
Third, If you use precast circular blocks, you can place them directly on the ground. If you want to use brick masonry, leave adequate gaps between the bricks.
Fourth, When connecting the effluent carrying pipe to the soak pit, be sure that the distance between the pipe and cover lid is minimal. Function of Soak Pit
Fifth, fill the pit with a variety of rocks, including brickbats and boulders.
At last, Cover the pit and make sure you can remove the cover for future maintenance.
In this estimate, we will find out the volume of the following items:
Brick Work in Cement Mortar 1:6 with Second class bricks
Dry Brick Work with Second Class Bricks
Brick Aggregates with 50mm size
Course Sand in Outer Side
Precast RCC Cover Slab
Placing of 100mm Dia vent pipe
Contingencies of Petty Item and Supervision charges
Here is the detailed estimate (Excel File Free Download):
[su_button id=”download” url=”https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/11zaDQhHfjINGBc4vT0Qy-_tjrGPeqtI0/edit?usp=sharing&ouid=108741018252176851323&rtpof=true&sd=true” target=”blank” size=”11″ wide=”yes” center=”yes”]Download[/su_button]
Here are some advantages to consider if you’re planning to build a soak pit:
The following are some of the disadvantages of soak pit:
Most soak pits will last between three and five years if they are well maintained. To extend the life of a soak pit, make sure the effluent has been clarified and/or filtered to prevent solids from building up excessively.
Eventually, the soak pit will fill up with particles and biomass, and it will need to be cleaned or relocated. The material inside the soak pit can be excavated and refilled if necessary.
Soak pits are generally constructed under the ground, and as a result, they are not likely to come into contact with humans or animals.
It can be adopted in even sensitive communities because it is odorless and has less contact with humans.
It is essential to locate a septic tank or soak pit at least 30 meters away from the drinking water source. Failure to do so can lead to contamination of the drinking water.
The post What is Soak Pit | Estimate of Soak Pit | Design | Excel File Download appeared first on The Civil Engineering.
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